Political Science Project Topics

The Use of Persuasive Language on Political Billboard in Maiduguri

The Use of Persuasive Language on Political Billboard in Maiduguri

The Use of Persuasive Language on Political Billboard in Maiduguri


Objectives of the Study

Generally this study aimed at discussing the persuasive language on political billboard advertisement’s influence on voter’s attitudes during the 2015 general elections and campaign in Maiduguri. To achieve this aim the following specific objectives are kept in view:

  1. To ascertain the level of relevance attached to billboards as means of political information during the period under investigation.
  2. To ascertain whether if residents of Bornu believe political messages on billboards.
  3. To ascertain if voters in Maiduguri were actually influenced by billboard messages during 2015 general election campaigns



The researchers got materials for literature review from Newspapers, Magazine, Bornu state independent electoral commission,

  • Review of concepts
  • Review of related studies
  • Theoretical framework

Review of concepts

During the campaign for the 2015 election, when campaign went into top gear, Maiduguries became a sea of billboards, with screaming messages such as transformation “Change” by the APC presidential candidate general Mohammed Buhari. Transformation – President  Goodluck Jonathan. “Continuity” by the Bornu State Governorship candidate Ifeanyi Ugwuanyi PDP free education Barr. Okey Ezea (Ideke) APC. Governorship candidate, transformation for change. The Ekweremmadu (Senatorial aspirant for Bornu State).

Billboard has made their mark as a medium of advertising. Billboard advertising has grown popular as a field of professional practice and as an index of modern business. Increasingly, marketers find them as handy tools for business promotion. Their prominent position along major streets makes them instant and compelled eye catch.

Billboard are usually located at points with high vehicle and traffic consequently, uses of such point are regularly exposed to the advertisement on the board. Billboard offers the advantage of very good color production and at the same time. It is an effective reminder medium for buyers who buy on impulse. As an authority put, “They have to be powerfully executed so as to intrude on the passers by consciousness”.

In addition, billboard adverts have the following advantage, over other medium:

  1. No seven days a week
  2. Billboard advertising is the most cost effectives
  3. Market (voters) by location
  4. Reach thousands of people daily
  5. Billboard messages are delivered with continuity and frequency (bootee and areas 1982





This chapter deals with the research methods used in carrying out the research. The researcher used the survey research method through administering the questionnaires. This research method appears appropriate, because the study deals with the public perception on billboard advertising.

Research Method

Research method used for the study is survey because the nature of the study demands primary data. Such new form of experimentation data must be free of any manipulation similar studies done by other scholars used sample method focus on the phenomena through the use of questionnaire or interview to gather information from sample of the phenomena.

Sample survey research method is best used in a large population of this nature. The method of data collection is through questionnaire and observation. The population of study include voters in Nigeria but, the

Research Design

Design is a term used to described a set of decision, which must be taken regarding the collection of data before they are collected. It is the blue print or plan which determines the nature and scope of study carried out or proposed. (Ogbuoshi 201, p.85).The research design adopted for this study is survey method because it is very effective and efficient means of testing the opinions and attitudes of a given population and it provides accurate data which is highly representative of a population and also because it involves the study of human behaviours.

To make this study workable, the questionnaire will be administered to the respondents with their responses fully noted.




In this chapter the statistical data from the respondents are collected, classified and  presented in the simplest form to make the study easily understood, interpreted and analysed. They are presented in a table form frequencies and percentage 400 copies of questioners were administered to the respondents 15 copies were not properly filled hence rate of 3.75 per cent was recorded



Summary of Findings

The project was done in view of voter’s perception of the electoral process in Nigeria during 2015 general election. It was done in view of the place of billboards as a mass medium and in the context which media affects research and political communication. The area study was Bornu, Nigeria.

The researchers proved that respondents saw the electoral process as credible, but said that their perception of the process did not affect the judgment of the billboards. Even though, the process was credible according to the respondents, it was not enough grounds to believe that billboards should be trusted to the extent of converting anyone from one party or choice of candidates to another.

The research design used in this work by the researchers of billboards in Bornu State made them (the boards) draw the public attention. There was so much in the billboards to admire such that some of the, respondents would have been chosen if voting depends on wonderful recall messages they had seen on billboards. We the researchers also found out that respondent’s agreed that billboards were good tools of political campaign and education but they did not believe it could sway them over to any political candidate.

People in Bornu State attach relevance on billboards as means of political information during the period under review: billboards political advertisement portray credibility role in Bornu State general election.

The researchers found out that persuasive language on political billboards did not affect candidate choice. The social categories to which the publics belong as well as the relationships they had with people were the factors that determined candidate’s choice during the election.


It has been demonstrated that the publics sees the billboard as a potent advertising medium. They score politicians high on good use of billboards for electioneering campaign. However, perception of billboards does not affect voting behaviours, public belief in the powerful potentials is yet to affect their views about choice of candidate. But no one can rule out the fact that a positive change in the long message are touched can change the way the public perceives billboards. It is not good news for political advertisers that their beautiful messages are only admired, not followed. This reminds us of one of the popular saying in advertising that” if the consumer shouts great about a product, and does nothing subsequently, then your advertising resources have been thrown to the dogs.” Nevertheless, it still appears that perception of billboards still has something to do with perception of the electoral process in Nigeria Prior to 2015, people adjudged the 2015 process as credible, but still appear to view politicians and their messages with the same eye they view them before 2015. To the public, it seemed that candidature and design of billboards are’ different issues. Thus bad candidates can still have wonderful billboards message. Indeed, while the public had good reasons for admiring billboards, they also had strong points in those things that put them off about billboards.


In view of the findings of this research work, the following recommendations are hereby made:

  1. Aside aesthetics, billboards messages should touch on ideology and manifestos or projected by a candidate or party. Perhaps this is why they had not yet see any messages that could convert them over to a political party.
  2. Government should adopt billboards as majàr tools for political education. The idea is to make them popular as tools for voter mobilization by government, not just political candidate. For instance, there are not too many billboards promoting political consciousness or campaigning against political party.
  3. Relevant government agencies should ensure that billboards do not obstruct traffic or adversely alter the design of cities. It was from• an open-ended question, that the public pointed out the way billboards clutter the entire streets of Bornu, even blocking  traffic sign and traffic lights at night.
  4. Government can also supervise the construction of billboards. A government agency can be established to build billboards. In one instance a respondent pointed out that some of the billboards are eyesores when they are blown over by strong words, as such, they pose risks to building traffic and pedestrians.
  5. Billboards messages can be written in Local dialects. Illustrations can include what the illiterate can identify with. Some of those visited refused to fill the questionnaire for lack of any “Share” from political, or Lack of interest in politics.
  6. Women candidates-can stress the greater factors to raise the consciousness of women, who all too fortunately think that politics is for men. Politicians should be mindful of their language. Messages should be devoid of mudslinging. Respondents, for instance found that some messages were sarcastic while other messages midly insulted the opposition.
  7. Political parties should make good use of billboards in selling their manifestos and party ideology not merely living it to candidates to talk about. Thus, parties can advert themselves on billboards.
  8. Political parties should make relentless else of professionals in designing and placing their billboards. On technical groups; this researcher observed some billboards that passed for painted displays. Over generous use of colour on too big photographs turned such billboards repulsively garish.
  9. Messages are too important. Messages ought to be bold, clear and simple. They ought not to be too ambitious to be achievable. It is worth reiterating that politicians need to learn the difference between manifestos and just promises. Everyone can make a promise, but it takes an astute politician to understand the policy and valued oriented issues that ought to be addressed by any government. Without messages that address broad issues of policy, the public will continue to admire the billboards in terms of aesthetic, but have little to influence them in the message content.


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