Nursing Project Topics

Trend of Immunization Coverage in Mutum Biyu Ward “B” From 2016-2019 in Gassol Local Government Area, Taraba State.

Trend of Immunization Coverage in Mutum Biyu Ward B From 2016-2019 in Gassol Local Government Area, Taraba State.

Trend of Immunization Coverage in Mutum Biyu Ward “B” From 2016-2019 in Gassol Local Government Area, Taraba State.


General and Specific Objectives

General objective

To identify the trend of immunization coverage in Mutum Biyu ward “B” from 2016-2019 in Gassol Local Government Area, Taraba state.

Specific objectives  

  1. To assess the levels of knowledge of mothers or care givers  regarding RI in Mutum Biyu ward B
  2. To assess the attitude of mothers or care giver regarding RI in Mutum Biyu ward B.
  3. To determine coverage for the various RI antigens among children 12-23 months old in Mutum Biyu ward B.
  4. To determine the socio–demographic factors that affects routine immunization coverage among children aged 12 -23 months in Mutum Biyu ward B.



National Programme on Immunization  

The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) which was launched by the world Health Organization (WHO) in 1974 globally focused on prevention of six childhood vaccine preventable diseases namely tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, measles, diphtheria, Pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus. However, high prevalence of some vaccine preventable diseases such as hepatitis and yellow fever has necessitated their inclusion in the national immunization programme of some countries including Nigeria. The Federal government of Nigeria which has pursued an active immunization programme through the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) introduced the EPI in 1979. In view of the critical need to enhance the effectiveness of immunization which was fast declining and to meet the global challenges of immunization, the EPI was restructured in 1997 and renamed National programme on immunization (NPI).

Following the Health Sector Reform of 2007, the NPI was merged with the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) which is charged with the responsibility of effectively controlling through provision of vaccines and immunization guidelines, the occurrence of the eight vaccines preventable diseases (VPDs) earlier mentioned. Currently, the country has introduced the Haemophilus Influenzae type b vaccine as Penta-valent vaccine into its EPI programme in order to reduce substantially child mortality from pneumonia and meningitis.

In Nigeria, the government provide vaccines and immunization services free to all eligible populations through the functional Primary Health Care (PHC) centres government and private health facilities. The Target Groups for Immunization in Nigeria are: Children 0 – 11 months, Children 0 – 59 months, Women of child bearing age 15 – 49 years, Other at – risk groups especially in outbreak situation and those travelling to endemic areas and International travellers. The traditional routine immunization vaccines that are administered in Nigeria are nine and they include Bacille-Calmette Guerin (BCG) for tuberculosis, oral polio vaccine (OPV) for poliomyelitis, Penta-valent vaccine for diphtheria, Pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis b and Haemophilus Influenzae type b, measles and yellow fever vaccines.

Nigeria  routine immunization schedule is designed to include all children aged 0 – 1 year who are to receive one dose of BCG vaccine which is given at birth, 3 doses of  Pentavalent vaccines given as Pentavalent 1 at 6 weeks of age, Pentavalent 2 at 10 weeks of age and Pentavalent 3 at 14 weeks of age, 4 doses of OPV given as OPV0 at birth,  OPV1 at 6 weeks,  OPV2 10 weeks and OPV3 14 weeks of age, 4 doses of Hepatitis B vaccines given as HepB0 birth while the remaining are given as Pentavalent vaccine at 6 weeks, 10 weeks and 14 weeks of age, one dose of Measles vaccine is given at 9 months of age and one dose of Yellow Fever vaccine also given at 9 months of age.

The funding of immunization is a collective responsibility of the Federal, State and Local Governments. However, external donors/development partners such as World Bank, European commission, USAID, WHO, DFID, UNICEF, GAVI are explored for financing immunization services on a sustainable basis.

There are medical incident that take place within one month after an immunization and is believed to be caused by the immunization and they are referred to as adverse events following immunization (AEFIS). They include; hotness of the body, pains and swellings at the injection site, restlessness. Other serious or severe effects are all deaths that are thought by health workers to be related to immunization, that occur within one month of an immunization, all cases requiring hospitalization that are thought by health workers and/ or the public to be related to immunization, that occur within one month of an immunization and any severe or unusual medical incidents that are thought by health workers and/ or the public to be related to immunization.



Study Area

The study area is Mutum Biyu ward B in Gassol Local Government Area of Taraba state. Gassol is a Local Government Area in Taraba State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Mutum Biyu (or Mutumbiyu or Mutum Mbiyu) on the A4 highway at8°38′00″N 10°46′00″E. It has an area of 5,548 km² and a population of 244,749 at the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 672. The northern border of Gassol is the Benue River and the Taraba River flows north through the area to its confluence with the Benue. Gassol is one of the eight LGAs of Taraba State whose majority population is the Fulani and Wurkun people. On 28 June 2014, the Taraba State police command in Jalingo said “unknown gunmen” had “attacked and killed 10 persons who were coming from Garba Chede to Maihula village” in Gassol LGA.

Study Design

This was cross sectional study.

Study Population  

These are mothers or care givers of eligible children who are permanent resident in the community.




Three hundred and sixty (360) mothers or care givers participated in the study, the mean age of the respondents was 28.1 ± 7.032 years. 67% of mothers or care givers are aware of routine immunization but their levels knowledge was rated poor 30(8.3%) while their attitude towards the immunization was rated good 308 (85.6%).




The maternal knowledge on the routine immunization was poor (8.3%), however mother’s and attitudes towards immunization are good.

More so, and in spite of the successes recorded in the area of childhood Immunization services in Nigeria, the fully immunized children aged 12-23 months in Mutum Biyu ward B was still far below the recommended 80% at district level (35.5%).

Among the factors that were significantly associated with full immunization coverage of children in the community are maternal education, sources of maternal information on routine immunization, and place of child delivery.

While only sources of maternal information on routine immunization was found to be independently associated (predictor) with full immunization coverage of children in the community.


Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered

  1. The Taraba state government through the ministry of health and state primary health care development agency should coordinate and disseminate information on the importance of routine immunization through radio and television messages and jingles.
  2. Gassol Local Government Area shouldcreate awareness on routine immunization in the community through the social mobilization.
  3. In the light of the inconvenient time and busy schedule of the mothers or care giver in the community, the community should be involved in the planning and implementation of routine immunization activities.
  4. Gassol Local Government Area should strengthen the communication skills among the health care workers to be able to stress to the mothers and care givers the importance of routine immunization.
  5. The Non-Governmental Organization and Community based Organizations should be involved in routine immunization activities.
  6. Others scope of the study such as health system and operational barriers and demand barriers against RI should be explore for further research.
  7. The Gassol Local Government Area through the health department should advocate and sensitize both the community and religious leaders on the importance of routine immunization in their communities.


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