Building Project Topics

Assessment of the Utilization of Building Information Modeling by Construction Professionals in Benin City

Assessment of the Utilization of Building Information Modeling by Construction Professionals in Benin City

Assessment of the Utilization of Building Information Modeling by Construction Professionals in Benin City

Chapter One

Aim and Objectives

This aim of the study is to examine BIM usage among the construction professionals in Binin City State with a view to determining its level of adoption in the NCI.

The objectives are to

  1. determine the level of BIM usage among construction professionals in Binin City State;
  2. identify and examine the level of BIM in use among construction professionals in the study area; and
  3. determine the factors influencing the use of BIM in the study area.




The development of building information starts from the definition of the building function, style, and method of construction; and are required to let the client know ahead of time what is going to be delivered and to agree what was required. Information are developed by designers and builders to communicate with each other and these information are usually communicated through catalogues, drawings, specifications and bill of quantities before the advent of 2D and 3D CAD drawings, animation, linked databases and spreadsheets, and now Building Information Modelling (Construction Products Association (CPA), 2013; United State National BIM Standard, 2007).

The level of building information to be developed depends on the needs and intention of the client. Examples of building information include: geometry, spatial relationships, quantities and properties of building components, financial and cash flow analysis, analysis of primary function, structural design and analysis, mechanical and air handling systems, lighting design and analysis, acoustics design and analysis, energy conservation and air quality analysis, vertical and horizontal circulation analysis, security analysis, cost estimation and analysis, building maintenance, and buildability analysis (BIM Handbook, 2011; Foundation of Wall and Ceiling Industry, 2009).

First generation of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software tools supported 3D object modelling with associated attributes, which allowed objects to be composed into engineering assemblies such as engines, process plants, or buildings. The association of materials and other properties with the shapes (Figure 2.1) as recognized in these softwares allows the development of other softwares that can be used for structural analysis and determination of bill of quantities (BIM Handbook, 2011).

Building Information Modelling (BIM)

The ongoing digital switch-over in the construction and the advancement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have provided an ideal vehicle for integrating and disseminating information around a network of participating groups and organizations. It has become a cost-effective, universally accepted and readily available information presentation and delivery system (Scott, Chong and Li, 2005; Wong, 2012). According to Sabol (2008), BIM gives an accurate model of a building and a database for recording the breadth of information developed and associated with building components; beyond drawing and documentation, BIM offers a platform for enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration, the capability to manage change, and the ability to extend information support throughout the building lifecycle. Also, quantities and shared properties of materials can be easily extracted, scope of work can be isolated and defined, and systems, assemblies, and sequences are displayed in a relative scale with the entire component or group of components. Information can be attached to building components during the design process from manufacturer’s specifications to maintenance instructions; thus offering the potential for an integrated information base available to building owners and operators at project turnover. BIM covers geometry, spatial relationships, light analysis, geographic information, quantities and properties of building components, project management and post-construction facilities management. BIM at higher level is more than a mere simulation of building’s geometry and appearance. It is more than graphic visualizations of buildings.     It provides intelligence at the object level for data integration and design analysis and that a software application is capable of 3D functionality does not automatically imply that the software is capable of producing a building information model because BIM gives a model composed of intelligent objects with content and not drawings or images requiring interpretations (New York City Department of

Design and Construction, 2012; United State General Services Administration, 2007; BIM Handbook, 2011; Autodesk, 2011; BIM Guide, 2013).  In BIM, virtual designs are built in 3D before work proceeds on site; the attributes of all the elements of the building can be found in the model; and spatial

‘clashes’ can be identified and resolved in the model instead of on site (CPA, 2013). As observed by RIBA (2012) and Sebastian (2010), BIM is more than 3D, it can be 4D when time or work schedule information is added to the project model or 5D when cost or quantity schedule information is given in the model or 6D when facilities management information is added to the model.





This chapter describes the methods adopted in achieving the aim and objectives of the study. It discusses the data requirement and collection, the target population, the sample frame and size, the sampling technique, method of data analysis and expected contribution to knowledge.

Data required and data collection

Primary data is required for the study and will be obtained through a structured questionnaire survey approach.

Study population and Sampling

The target population in the study is composed of the Architects, Quantity Surveyors, Facilities Managers, Land Surveyors, Civil and Structural Engineers, Building Services Engineers (Mechanical and Electrical) and Builders as they are the primary participants who have substantial involvement and responsibilities in BIM. The study excluded the other construction professionals because they are not among the primary participants that normally coordinate the development of information models in BIM. The study used simple random sampling to select 175 respondents for the study. The study used exactness, as the number population and samples were the same.



This research survey was one of the first steps towards understanding and assessing the BIM use and its applications in the local context for coordinating, communicating and managing the construction projects. The data obtained from this study suggested that BIM is an effective tool and process for improving the delivery process of construction projects.



This study was carried out on the assessment of the utilization of building information modeling by construction professionals in Benin City. There was an increasing level of awareness about BIM technology and its processes as 88.1 % of the respondents were having either little or general knowledge and 11.2% were with working knowledge of BIM. Majority of the respondents (64.9%) of this survey have no working experience with BIM because of various adoption barriers but quite a number of them (35.1%) were having varied experience with this technology. According to the overall frequency analysis of the collected data ‘For better visualization and being an interactive tool’, followed by ‘To increase the capacity of design reviews’, were the main reasons to take interest in the BIM applications. ‘Constructability analysis’ followed by ‘Model based estimation and construction sequencing’ were the major anticipated tasks for which BIM is being considered to be adopted. Construction Industry stakeholders have perceived the use of BIM that it minimizes risk of discrepancies between orthographic views like plan, section, and elevation. They also believe BIM as a facilitator that instantly generates new sections, elevations and 3D views.


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