Anatomy Project Topics

Dermatoglyphic Patterns, 2d:4d, Hirsutism and Palmar Hyperhidrosis Among Selected Dialects of Igala Ethnic Group of Nigeria

Dermatoglyphic Patterns, 2d:4d, Hirsutism and Palmar Hyperhidrosis Among Selected Dialects of Igala Ethnic Group of Nigeria

Dermatoglyphic Patterns, 2d:4d, Hirsutism and Palmar Hyperhidrosis Among Selected Dialects of Igala Ethnic Group of Nigeria

Chapter One

Aim and Objectives of the Study

 Aim of Study

The aim of the study is to investigate the distribution of dermatoglyphic pattern, 2D:4D, hirsutism, and palmar hyperhidrosis among selected dialects of the Igala ethnic group

Objectives of study

The objectives of the study are to investigate:

  1. Finger and palm print patterns among selected dialects of the Igala ethnicgroup
  2. 2D:4D in the different dialects of the Igala ethnic group
  3. prevalence of hirsutism in the different dialects among Igala women
  4. association of finger and palm print pattern, 2D:4D, hirsutism and palmar hyperhidrosis in the different dialects of the Igala ethnic groups.
  5. relationship of height to weight, BMI, 2D, 4D, 2D:4D and tri radii angle in the population studied
  6. relationship of weight to BMI, weight, 2D, 4D, 2D:4D and tri radii angle in the population studied
  7. relationship of BMI to 2D, 4D, 2D:4D and tri radii angle in the population studied viiithe distribution of ridge counts in male and females



  Development of Epidermal Ridges

The differentiation of epidermal ridges takes place early in fetal development. The ridge pattern is genetically determined and is affected by environmental factors (Bonnevie, 1924). Environmental factor such as external pressure on fetal pads and embryonic fetal finger movements could influence ridge formation (Schaumann and Alter, 1976). Dermatoglyphics traits such as finger ridge count develop within 10th to 17th week post conception (Babbler, 1991). The type of pattern that develops in palm and soles including the digits are genetically determined, and any developmental anomalies that occur in the embryo affect the development of ridge pattern (Moore and Persaud, 2009). Abnormal dermatoglyphic patterns have been observed in several none chromosomal disorders and other diseases whose origin may be influenced directly or indirectly by genetic inheritance (Gupta etal.,1984) Ridge formation is influenced by individual differences in developmental stability and first and second trimester insults on the embryo brings about dermatoglyphic changes (Schaumann and Alter, 1976; Marko, 1992).

 Patterns of Finger Prints

Finger print patterns are of three types, which include; a) Arches b) Loops c) Whorls(United states Department of Justice –FBI, 1984).







The following materials were used:

  1. Stamp Pad and Ink
  2. Digital Camera (TECNO DP7CPRO, CHINA)
  3. Avenger digital caliper (Micro Mak USA).
  4. Hand Lens
  5. Stadiometer
  6. Protractor
  7. Questionaires


A total of 602 subjects were recruited in the study, 322 were females while 280 were males. They were from Ankpa, Dekina, Idah, Ofu, Olamaboro, Omala, Ibaji and Igalamela dialects of the Igala ethnic group who were within theage range of 13-19 years. They were recruited by random sampling technique, they were informed about the study and those who gave their consent were included in the study.



 Study Population 

A total of 602 secondary school subjects participated in this study (n= 602) involving males and females from selected dialects of Igala ethnic group in Kogi State. The age range was between 13 to 19 years of age with the mean and standard deviation of16.65± 1.75 years. (Table 4.1)



Finger and palm print patterns are important in the identification of individuals, it also has an increasing attention in medical practice (Yunyu et al., 2002). Each individual possesses a unique ridge configuration which remains unchanged from womb to tomb, and this has been utilized as a means of personal identification (Fuller, 1973). Fluctuating asymmetry is an indicator of genetic and environmental stress, it can be assessed by variations in ridge patterns, ridge counts and ATD angle (Milne et al., 2003; Graham et al., 2010). 2D:4D a potential marker for androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism, as it correlates negatively to testosterone and positively to estrogen in the foetus (Danborno et al., 2010) Usually males have lower ratios as compared to females, and digit ratios have been reported to be associated with spatial skills, handedness, personalities and prevalence of obesity, autism, myopia, and depression (Bailey and Hurd, 2005; Rebecca and Benson, 2006; Mayhew et al., 2007; Knickmeyer et al., 2011; Saravanakumar and Prathibha, 2016). It is known that there are differences in 2D:4D between ethnic groups (Manning et al., 2002; Manning et al., 2004).

Hirsutism is an international issue and approximately 5% to 15% of women have been reported to be hirsutes (Azziz, 2003). Excess hair is an issue of concern for women and can have a significant effect on self-esteem and decreased quality of life (Himelein, 2006; Lapidoth et al., 2010; Pate 2013). Palmer hyperhidrosis can result to an individual living in embarrassment, frustration, social withdrawal and low self-esteem (Leung, 1999; Freedberg et al., 2003).

Result from this study showed that females presented a statistically significant higher mean values for height and BMI, this may be due to high level of adiposity in the females and high secretion of growth hormone at the adolescent age (Jackson et al., 2002) and this is in agreement with the report of Encuesta Nacional de Salud (2003) among a population of Chile which showed that females had 27.8 kg/m2 print while males had 24.3 kg/m2 for body mass index. The result of the current study showed that arch finger pattern was the most prevalent (57%), followed by loops (31%) and whorl (12%). This is in agreement with the study of Igbigbi and Msamati (1999) to establish digital dermatoglyphic pattern of Malawians, the study revealed that arches were the most prominent finger print pattern in both sexes, followed by radial loop in males and whorls in females, but differs from the findings ofUjaddughe (2015) in their study of dermatoglyphic patterns and sex distribution in Esan ethnic group of Edo state, Nigeria and observed that the loop pattern had the highest frequency (61.7%) followed by whorl (24.9%) and then arch (12.8%). Males have higher occurrence of arch (58.5%) as compared to females (55.5%), females have higher occurrence of the loop (32.6%) as compared to males (28.7%) while whorl finger print pattern was higher in females (12.1%) than in males (9.2%). This is contrary to the findings Ekanem et al., (2008) in their study of the dermatoglyphic patterns of Annang ethnic group in Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria and they observed that the ulnar loops were the most predominant digital pattern in females (50.1 %) than in males (39.6 percent), followed by whorls (42.9 %) in males, then arches (31.1 percent) in females and radial loop (2.1 %) in males.




Result obtained from the total sample of 602 participants showed that females have higher 2D:4D ratios in both right and left hands respectively.The study revealed that females had higher 2D:4D bilaterally as compared to males, the study also showed that there was a positive correlation between second and fourth digit length and height in males and females bilaterally. Arch was higher in males than in females, while loop and whorl finger print patterns were higher in females than in males, with third and fourth born having the highest prevalence of arch, while first and third born had the highest occurrence of loop. Whorl was more prevalent in fourth born.

The result from the study showed that females from Omaladialect had the highest prevalence of hirsutism. Palmer hyperhidrosis was most prevalent in subject from Idah dialect. The right and left ATD angles were higher in females than in males. It was also higher in non-hirsute females than hirsute females on both hands. First born subjects of the overall population had the highest right and left ATD angles as compare to others.


Based on the findings of the present study, the following recommendations are formulated.

  1. Further studies should be conducted to observe genetic variation of the Igala ethnic group, as most of the parameters in this study are genetically
  2. Studies should be conducted to see the prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome among the various Igala ethnic group, as it tends to be seen among hirsutes

Contribution to Knowledge

  • This study has been able to establish a relationship between finger print pattern and palmar hyperhidrosis with χ2 of 3.356, 3.356, 32.504, 10.631, and 27.007 for the right fingers and 059, 31.627, 38.024, 2.427 and 0.277 for the left. (P< 0.001)
  • This study has established a relationship between hirsutism and dialect in the Igala ethnic group as females from Omala had the highest occurrence (χ2=27.447, P=0.037)
  • The study established an association between palmar hyperhidrosis and right and left total ridge counts, TRCR had a mean value of 45.90±32.22 for males and 28.56±19.98 for females and TRCL had a mean value of 27±35.99 for males and 38.31±19.63 for females. (P<0.001)
  • The study established a relationship between finger print pattern and hirsutism in females, with SH having the highest occurrence of arch, NH having the highest occurrence of loop and MH having the highest occurrence of whorl with χ2 of 13.970, 56.032, 24.442, 38.67 and 6.894 for the right fingers and 14.294, 18.817,18.817, 28.052 and 13.692 for the left (P< 0.001)
  • The study established a relationship between fingerprint pattern and sex, with males having higher occurrence of arch (58.5%), females having higher occurrence of the loop (32.6%)and whorl finger print pattern was higher in females (12.1%) with χ2 of 151, 26.707, 0.640, 97.148 and 24.830 for the right fingers and 3.734, 46.89, 36.30, 29.02 and 22.52 for the left fingers.
  • The study also established a relationship between 2D:4D and sex, with females having higher 2D:4D than males with t-value of 17.44 for right and 56 for the left hand.


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