Biochemistry Project Topics

Effect of Substituting Maize With Bambara (Voandzieiasubsterrenea Thours) Waste Meal in the Practical Diets of Clarias Gariepinus

Effect of Substituting Maize With Bambara (Voandzieiasubsterrenea Thours) Waste Meal in the Practical Diets of Clarias Gariepinus

Effect of Substituting Maize With Bambara (Voandzieiasubsterrenea Thours) Waste Meal in the Practical Diets of Clarias Gariepinus

Chapter One

Objectives of the study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of substituting maize with bambara (Voandzieiasubsterrenea thours) waste meal in the practical diets of Clarias gariepinus.

The following are the specific objectives of the study:

  • To examine the proximate composition of the maize, Bambara waste meal and experimental diets
  • To examine the performance characteristics of fish fed different levels of dietary Bambara waste meal
  • To examine the economics of feeding varying levels of Bambara waste meal to Clarias gariepinus



Bambara nut

Overview of Bambara nut

Vigna subterranea (also known by its common names: Bambara nut, Bambara-bean, Congo goober, earth pea, ground-bean, or hog-peanut) is a member of the family Fabaceae. The plant originated in West Africa (the Bambara people are found in southern Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso and Senegal). Vigna subterranea ripens its pods underground, much like the peanut (also called a groundnut). They can be eaten fresh or boiled after drying, they can ground either fresh or dry to make puddings popularly known as Okpa in Nigeria.

Source: Source: Amisah et al., 2019

The origin of the Bambara groundnut is West Africa and the region of cultivation is Sub-Saharan Africa’s warm tropics. Bambara nut grows well anywhere groundnut (peanut) grows, and so is vastly present from Kwara state and throughout the northern parts of Nigeria.


Bambara groundnut represents the third most important grain legume in semi-arid Africa. “It is resistant to high temperature and is suitable for marginal soils where other leguminous crops cannot be grown”, thereby considered as a low-impact crop.

Bambara groundnut has nutritive value ranging between 57.9% to 61.7% carbohydrate and 24.0% to 25.5% protein content. It is considered to be a neglected and underutilized food source in Benin. It is reported an antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans (yeast) and Aspergillus niger (mold). The brown hull showed the highest concentrations of rutin and myricetin among flavonoids, while the red hull resulted in having with the highest concetrations of chlorogenic and ellagic acid among tannin compounds.

Uses of Bambara nut

The seeds are used for food and beverage because of their high protein content and for digestive system applications. The entire plant is known for soil improvement because of nitrogen fixation. In West Africa, the nuts are eaten as a snack, roasted and salted, processed into cake, or as a meal, boiled similar to other beans.

In South Eastern Nigeria, particularly in Enugu, the dried bambara beans are ground into a fine powder, then mixed with palm oil, water and pumpkin leaves and then poured into banana leaf wraps or 1 litre cellophane bags before being boiled into a kind of cakey pudding to make “okpa”, a common breakfast food in Enugu, Nsukka and Ngwo Nigeria. In Niger State and upper Kwara state the Nupes and Yorubas have a delicacy called Sagidi, a meal sold in every Friday and Saturday market. Just like Groundnut Cake (Kulikuli cake), the Bambara nut is processed to Kangu cake starting from Kwara through northern Nigeria, Chad and Niger. During the rainy season in many parts of central Nigeria like Jos, the fresh bambara beans are cooked with their shells still on them. The beans are then eaten as a snack just like boiled groundnuts.




Experimental site and sample preparation

The experiment was conducted at the Department of Fisheries Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos State. The sample, Bambara waste meal was collected from the local millers at the Army Barrack in Odogunyan Lagos State. The Bambara waste meal was sieved to remove the shaft from the meal. Sample of the meal was analysed for proximate composition as shown in Table 1.

Feed formulation

The meal produced (Bambara waste meal) was mixed with other feeding ingredients to formulate five iso-nitrogeneous diets at 30% crude protein in which Bambara waste meal was to replace maize at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively, while the control diet (0%) contained no Bambara waste meal (Table 2).



The chemical composition of the bambara waste meal showed that the crude protein of bamabara waste meal (19.9%) was greater than that of maize 10% while the crude fibre of (BWM) 6.2% was almost  the  same  as  that  of  maize 6.5% as shown in Table 1. The crude protein of BWM in this report was recently similar to 16.00%

of crude protein reported by Enwere (1998). The chemical composition of the experimental diets revealed that the crude protein and crude fibre content of the feed were within the recommended values as reported by Fagbenro and Arowosoge (1991).

However, the crude protein content of the diets increased with increased dietary inclusion of bambara waste meal as shown in Table 1. This is attributed to superior crude protein content of the test ingredient used over maize as shown in Table 1.

The acceptance of bambara waste meal diet could be attributed to the organoleptic qualities of Bambara nut waste meal (Mbata et al., 2007) and also fish meal. Bambara nut waste meal is known to have 30% neutral sugar present as glucose and galactose (Minka and Bruneteau, 2000). The immediate acceptance of the diets by the fish could as well be affected by the neutral sugars in the diets. Effect of organoleptic status of ingredients are important factor in considering aquaculture feed additive (Glencross et al., 2007).




This study has shown that Bambara waste meal diet can be utilized by Clarias gariepinus , hence, can replace the more expensive maize, thereby, reducing the cost of production and control environmental filth associated with waste in general in Nigeria. Therefore inclusion of up to 100% Bambara waste in the diets of Clarias gariepinus  will help produce cheaper and affordable African catfish fish for the table. Therefore, fish farmers are encouraged to use this level of Bambara waste meal in compounding rations for their African catfish fingerlings.


One of the ways to minimize the cost of feed, provide animal protein and get maximum production/performance especially in developing countries, is the use of some plants/leaves and seeds that are of high nutritional properties and beneficial when incorporated into livestock feed. The use of local, cheap and readily available materials particularly those that are not utilized by man should be given attention as the only viable alternatives to the use of conventional feedstuffs. Therefore, such potential needs to be maximized for profit maximization with least cost.


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