Agriculture Project Topics

Effect of the Age of Transplanting on Rice

Effect of the Age of Transplanting on Rice

Effect of the Age of Transplanting on Rice


Aim and Objectives of the study

The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the age of transplanting on plant yield.

The following are the specific objectives of the study

  1. Average yield and yield contributing characters of 5 rice varieties as influenced by the age of seedlings at transplanting during 2018/19 and 2019/20
  2. Effect of the transplanting dates on agronomic characters and grain yield (average of 5 rice varieties) during 2018/19 and 2019/20
  3. Agronomic characters of 5 rice varieties during 2018/19 and 2019/20
  4. The grain yield, kg ha-1 as affected by the interaction effect of age of seedlings, transplanting dates and rice varieties.



Origin and distribution of rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza glaberrima (African rice) or Oryza sativa (Asian rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world’s human population, especially in Asia and Africa (Smith, 2018). It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production (rice, 741.5 million tonnes in 2014), after sugarcane (1.9 billion tonnes) and maize (1.0 billion tonnes) (Thakur et al., 2018).

Origin of rice domestication has been a subject of much debate among those who study crop history and anthropology – whether rice originated in India or China (Huang, et al., 2012). Asian rice, Oryza sativa, is one of oldest crop species. It has tens of thousands of varieties and two major subspecies, japonica and indica. Archeologists focusing on East and Southeast Asia argue that rice farming began in south-central China along the Yangzte River and spread to Korea and Japan from there south and northeast. Archaeologists working in India argue that rice cultivation started in the valley of the Ganges River and Indus valley, by peoples unconnected to those of the Yangzte (Sandhya 2018).

In India, rice has been cultivated since ancient times. This supported by archaeological evidences and by the numerous references made to rice in ancient Hindu scriptures and literature. Carbonised paddy grains were found in the excavation at Hasthinapur (Uttar Pradesh) at a site dated between 1000-750 B.C (Sandhya, 2018). This is the oldest rice specimen yet known in the world. From the study of Sanskrit and of other different languages in Southeastern Asia, many investigators have come to the conclusion that rice was known in India before the present era (Wishart, 2018).

Rice is the world’s leading food crop, cultivated over an area of about 155 million hectares with a production of about 596 million tonnes (paddy). In terms of area and production it is second to wheat. It provides about 22 per cent of the world’s supply of calories and 17% of the proteins. Maximum area under rice is in Asia. Among the rice growing countries, India has the largest area (44.8 million hectares) followed by China and Indonesia. In respect of production, India ranks second with 131 million tonnes of paddy next to China (200 million tonnes of paddy). In regard to average yield per hectare, Egypt ranks first followed by USA. Average rice yield of India is only 2929 kg per hectare. The leading countries producing rice crop are Japan, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar and Philippines. In India, rice is grown in almost all the states. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal lead in the area. West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh have the highest rice production. The average yield per hectare is highest in Punjab (3346 kg/ha).





  1. Sickle
  2. Hoe
  3. Rice
  4. Basket
  5. Record book

Field of study

A field experiment was laid out in 2 x 5 x 3 factorial randomized block design with 3 replications in a rice farm in Niger state at 115 m above sea level.

Transplanting procedure

Seedlings of 25 and 50 days old of five rice varieties (Epoma rice, African rice, Ofada rice, Abakaliki rice and Asian rice) were transplanted on 14 July, 7 Aug, 1 and 26 Sept 2018/19 and 2019/2020 wet season. The plot size was kept 4-  3-m and with spacings of 20 cm hill to hill and row to row. Two seedlings hill-1 were maintained in both the years. Fertilizer dose of 50:40:30 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 were applied as basal and remaining nitrogen was top dressed 25 days after transplanting.



Effect of the age of seedlings



This study was carried out on the effect of transplanting on rice yield. The results showed that transplanting of rice irrespective of age of seedlings and varieties should be adjusted up to first week of Aug. Otherwise, decline trend in grain yield might be registered in delayed transplanting.

Transplanting is commonly practiced as a method of weed control for wet or puddled fields. It requires less seed but much more labor compared to direct seeding. Also, transplanted crops take longer to mature due to transplanting shock. Transplanting ensures a uniform plant stand and gives the rice crop a head start over emerging weeds. Further, seedlings are established even if the field is not leveled adequately and has variable water levels. Transplanting may also allow crop intensification as the crop is in the main field for less time.

Leaf area is an important plant trait which is directly linked with the rate of photosynthesis and crop yield. Total leaf area present at flowering greatly affects the amount of assimilates available to the panicles. The plant height is an important morphological character that primarily helps to avoid potential competition by weeds.

Although too short and too tall plant heights cause many disadvantages, a compromised height of a rice variety always offers benefits. The height is a varietal character, but is often regulated by environmental conditions.

Roots, being an integral part of the rice plant, have various adaptive mechanisms in response to soil water stress conditions in the acquisition of nutrients and water. The plants produce deep and extensive root system in response to water stress and support extraction of water from deep soils.

and increase nutrient uptake and maintain competitiveness with weeds (Richards, 2008). The alternate irrigation and its suspension ensured deeper growth of the root system and access to water and nutrients uptake which ensuring optimum growth and high grain yield. Spikelet sterility is an indicator of hardships experienced by the rice crop during the period from pollination and fertilization of ovules to physiological maturity. This could result due to nutrient deficiencies.


  • Berkelaar, D., 2001. SRI, The system of rice intensification: Less can be more.   Retrieved 15th July, 2009, from me=News&file=print &sid=461
  • Bhurer, KP, SK Rijal and DN Chaudhary. (2017). Influence of date of seeding and age of seedlings on grain yield of rice under rainfed conditions. Pp. 117-121. In: The Fourth Summer Crops Workshop and Research Program. National Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Nepal.
  • Godwin, A., Federic, L., and Olaf, E. (2011) The Nigerian Rice Economy in a Competitive World: Constraints, Opportunities and Strategic Choice. West Afr Rice Dev Assoc 1-55
  • Hengsdijk, A., Hardy, B., Bindraban, P.S., Tuong, T.P., Ladha, J.K (Ed.), Water-wise Rice Production (pp. 129-139.): IRRI,Phillipines.
  • Hengsdijk, A., Hardy, B., Bindraban, P.S., Tuong, T.P., Ladha, J.K (Ed.), Water-wise Rice Production (pp. 89-103): IRRI, Phillipines.
  • Huang, X., Kurata, N., Wei, X., and Guo, Y. (2012). “A map of rice genome variation reveals the origin of cultivated rice”. Nature. 490 (7421): 497–501. doi:10.1038/nature11532. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 23034647.
  • Imolehin ED, and Wada AC (2010) Meeting the Rice Production and Consumption Demand of Nigeria with improved Technologies. National Cereal Res Inst, Badaggi, Niger State, Nigeria, 1-11.
  • IRRI. (2013). Predicted effect of climate change on rice production in South East Asia. Pp. 37. In: Program Report For 2013. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Manila, Philippines.
  • Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 21(1), 20-25.
  • Koirala, GP. (2017). Effect of seeding dates on performances of improved rice varieties. Paper presented in 11th Summer Crops Workshop held during 30 Jan to 1 Feb 1985 at NRIP, Parwanipur.
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!