Science Laboratory Technology Project Topics

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Associated With (Tooth Ache) Dental Caries and Bleeding Gum and the Effect of Some Tooth Pastes

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Associated With (Tooth Ache) Dental Caries and Bleeding Gum and the Effect of Some Tooth Pastes

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Associated With (Tooth Ache) Dental Caries and Bleeding Gum and the Effect of Some Tooth Pastes

Chapter One


  •  To know or determine the bacterial organisms associated with toot ache (dental caries) and bleeding gum.
  • To be able to isolate those bacterial organisms that causes bleeding gum and dental caries.
  •  To know the effect of some tooth pastes especially (maclean on the tooth problems.
  • To educate people (both young and old) on how to take proper care of their teeth and maintain a good oral hygiene and make a wise choice of the type of food to go for so as to maintain a healthy teeth.





       Toot ache also known as odontalgia or less frequently as odontalgy is an aching pain in or around a tooth caused by dental caries, Taylor et al (2006). It is also known to be pains around the teeth that occurs primarily as a result of a dental condition.

According to Ash and Nelson (2003) dental caries which gave rise to tooth ache is also known as tooth decay or a cavity. It is disease or an infection that occurs when bacterial in the mouth reacts with sugar and converts it to acid. The acid weakens and dissolves the top two layers of the teeth; dentin and enamel, resulting in cavities (holes in the teeth). Small cavities do not cause pains and discomfort and so, it would not be noticed. Large cavities collects bacteria and food debries and can be very painful the two groups of bacteria responsible for initiating caries are; Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus Spp. If left untreated, cavities irritates a tooth’s pulp with toxin and the disease can lead to pain, tooth loss, infection and in severe can lead to death. Dental caries is therefore” the most comm on cause of tooth ache in the world.


The mouth contains a wide veriety of oral flora bacterial but only a few are believed to cause dental caries. They are:

Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobascillus such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and actinomyces Visiousu. The bacterials collects around the teeth and gums in a sticky creamy- coloured mass called plague, which serve as a biofilm. Grooves on the occlusal surface of molar and premolar teeth provides the microscopic retention site for plague bacterial. Plague can also collect above or below the gingival where it is reffered to as supra or sub gingival plague respectively.

The bacteria in a person’s mouth converts glucose, fructose, and most commonly sucrose (table sugar process called fermentation. If left in contact with the tooth, the acids may cause demineralization which is the dissolution of its mineral content. The process is dynamic and so a Remineralization can occur if the acid is neutralized by saliva or mouth wash. Also the use of fluoride tooth past or dental varnish can aid demineralization, Nelson (2003). If demineralization is allowed so long, more minerals will be lost and soft organic materials left behind starts disintegrating, forming a cavity or a hole.








Crafting paper was used to wrap glass wares such as test – tubes, conical flasks, beakers, wire loops, spatulas, pipettes inoculating needles and sterilized in a hot air over at 1600c one hour it was stored at 400c .


Collection of dental caries (tooth ache) and bleeding gum sward. From a person having tooth ache and constant bleeding gum, a swap was made and covered immediately and sent to laboratory for test.

Collection of Toothpaste Samples

The following tooth pastes, close up, Dabur herbal tooth paste and oral B were bought from the market (New market Enugu). It was properly covered with polythene to avoid contamination before use and sent to laboratory for test.

iii.    Nitrate reduction test peptone / potassium nitrate

(iv) (KNO3) medium was prepared sterilized and incoculated for 96 hours at 370c.








The result of the isolation and identification of the bacteria associated with toothache (dental caries and bleeding gum and the effect of some tooth pastes (macleans) was obvious that streptococcus mutan and lactobacillus causes dental caries and bleeding gum table 1 shows the morphology and grams reaction result and this shows both gram positive coccilacteria. Lactobacillus and streptococcus mutan.

Table 11 show biochemical test result of the organisms which confirmed that the bacteria responsible are streptococcus mutan and lactobacillus spp. Table 111 shows that the higher zone of inhibition is 3.0mm. in table v the oral B tooth paste have high effect on tooth ache and bleeding gum than other tooth pastes since it have the highest zone of inhibition of 7.0mm followed by daburherbal toothpaste (Table iv) which have zone of inhibition of 4.2mm shows that it have high effect on dental caries and bleeding gum the table listed shows that the higher the concentration the more effective the tooth paste will be and so the more the clear zone. In agreement with nelson (2003), oral tooth pastes are found to have immernsed effect on dental cries and bleeding gum.


From the result obtained in this work, the organization responsible for this disease are both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and they are Streptococcus mutan and Lactobacillus respectively. There is high effect of some tooth pastes with high fluorine such as oral B and Dabur herbal tooth paste and more than those with low fluorine content. Tooth pastes are therefore very important in maintaining a healthy and strong  teeth.


       Having gone through this practical work the following points are therefore recommended;

  1. Dental practitioners should help and enlighten the public on the important of using the tooth pastes with high flourid content and not just to pick any tooth paste and use this will help and improve their dental health.
  2. Adequate mouth wash is a Dvisable this should be done every morning and night to remove pathogenic organisms found around the tooth.
  3. Anybody suffering any type of tooth ache should rush and see a dentist or periodontist such that they will Diagnose the adequate treatment to remedy the pains.



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