Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Physicochemical, Mineral Composition Biscuits Produced From Wheat, Tigernut and Soy Flour Blend

Physicochemical, Mineral Composition Biscuits Produced From Wheat, Tigernut and Soy Flour Blend

Physicochemical, Mineral Composition Biscuits Produced From Wheat, Tigernut and Soy Flour Blend

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

This study aim at examining the physicochemical and mineral composition of Biscuits produced from wheat, tiger nut and soy-flour blends.



 Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a member of the Poaceae family, is one of the second main grain crops in the world. It is the important staple food of the world which meets most of the protein requirement of the people. In 2017/2018, wheat output exceeded 761.7 million tonnes, and in 2019/2020, global demand was projected to reach 762.4 million tonnes (FAO, 2020). The wide uses of wheat gluten are mainly baked breakfast, and analog meat products. Wheat is often commonly used for crumpets, cookies, flake, chapatis, bread, biscuits, noodles, flour, and grain to livestock, sales, roasted grain, and so forth. As the population increases exponentially, the production of wheat needs to be increased in order to fix the gap between growth and consumption.

Wheat is subjected to many biotic and abiotic pressures regardless of their poor productivity. In addition, there is inconsistency and improper use of fertilizers, lack of information on variants, edaphic features, mismanagement of farmers’ field operations, and technology (Ali et al., 2018). The requirement for wheat fertilizer depends on the accessibility of the crops to the soil (Kumar et al., 2005). Before using fertilizer, it is essential to recognize the condition of the soil’s nutritional condition and plant nutrient uptake. Crops cannot respond well to fertilizer present in soil under inadequate moisture and humidity. Plants under fertilization require additional moisture than plants which are not in fertilization (Meena et al., 2013). Besides, the water, nutrient absorption, and the stress response differ from the plant species and their genotypes. A cultivar that performs best in one type of soil can perform poorly in the other type of soil, and vice versa (Adhikari et al., 2019).

Wheat has been cultivated in Nigeria for centuries (Olugbemi et al., 2009). Ample evidence exists to show that wheat has been cultivated in Nigeria as early as 200BC, although the currently cultivated varieties are relatively recent introduction (Olabanji et al., 2004). However, Nigeria’s domestic wheat production has remained at a very low level in spite of the ever – rising demand for the crop. The constraints to the cultivation of wheat in most wheat growing areas in Nigeria include climatic requirements, appropriate agronomic practices and preference for the cultivation of vegetables (Ohiagu et al., 2007). Development of improved agronomic practices in respect of land preparation, planting, nutrition, water management, crop protection, harvest and post harvest technology have been the major areas where researchers have concentrated their efforts.

Wheat as an important industrial crop is the main raw material in feed mills, with bread, cake, biscuit, pasta, spaghetti, semovita, macaroni, containing reasonable amounts of wheat. The offal is used in compounding life stock feeds. After wheat harvest, the grain is separated from the stalks and chaff. The wheat stalks are used in a variety of applications: mulch, construction material, and as animal bedding. As food, wheat contributes more protein and calories to the diet than any other crop and world trade in wheat far exceeds the contributions of other grains put together (Oyewole et al., 2005).

Importance of Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis.

Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares, 2014). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.

Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids.

  Nutritional Contents

Globally, there is no doubt that the number of people who rely on wheat for a substantial part of their diet amounts to several billions. Therefore, the nutritional importance of wheat proteins should not be underestimated, particularly in less developed countries where bread, noodles and other products (e.g. bulgar, couscous) may provide a substantial proportion of the diet. Wheat provides nearly 55% of carbohydrate and 20% of the food calories. It contains carbohydrate 78.10%, protein 14.70%, fat 2.10%, minerals 2.10% and considerable proportions of vitamins (thiamine and vitamin-B) and minerals (zinc, iron). Wheat is also a good source of traces minerals like selenium and magnesium, nutrients essential to good health (Adams et al., 2002; Fraley, 2003; Shewry et al., 2006; Topping, 2007).

Wheat grain precisely known as caryopsis consists of the pericarp or fruit and the true seed. In the endosperm of the seed, about 72% of the protein is stored, which forms 8-15% of total protein per grain weight. Wheat grains are also rich in pantothenic acid, riboflavin and some minerals, sugars etc. The barn, which consists of pericarp testa and aleurone, is also a dietary source for fiber, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and niacin in small quantities.

Wheat germ is sodium and cholesterol free, and dense in nutrients. It is rich in vitamin E, magnesium, pantothenic acid, phosphorus, thiamin, niacin and zinc. It is also a source of coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) and PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) (Shewry, 2007; Shewry, 2009). Wheat germ is also high in fiber, and contains approximately 1 gram of fiber per tablespoon. A diet high in fiber can be useful in regulating bowel function (i.e. reducing constipation), and may be recommended for patients at risk for colon disease, heart disease, and diabetes.





Wheat, Tigernut and Soybean were bought from a local market in Owo, Ondo State Nigeria, and other ingredients used for this study were purchased at the same local market Owo. This research work was carried out in Department of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methods of Preparation

Preparation of wheat flour

For the production of wheat flour, 2kg of wheat was measured after which foreign materials such as dirt’s, stone, cobs, damaged and colored seeds were removed manually by hand picking. The sorted wheat was milled using laboratory attrition mill to produce wheat flour (WF) and was stored in an air tight polythene bag until needed further analysis as shown in figure I.




Table 4.1: Proximate Analysis of WF/TNF/SBF biscuits





From the result it is discovered that sample E contain significantly (p>O.05) higher amount of fat and fibre and protein compare to sample A, B, C and D. while sample A was higher in Ash and Carbohydrate compared to other samples. The mineral content of the study shows that sample B contains the highest amount of sodium and magnesium than the other three samples. The Potassium, calcium, iron and zinc contents of sample C is significantly higher than that of other three samples. The result also shows that sample A had better sensory parameter than sample B, C, D and E.


Sample E (40% wheat flour + 30% tiger nut flour+30% soybean flour) generally can be recommended for malnourished infants and preschool children based on its Nutritional contents. Since the mineral content of sample C is higher, the formulation method of sample C should be adopted.


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