With reference to secondary schools in Jos, the study looks at the challenges and potential for teaching and learning physics at the secondary school level. The study was conducted using a survey method, and out of 65 members of the academic staff at secondary schools in Jos, 35 participated in the study. For the study, a questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale that was prepared by the researchers was employed. Mean scores and frequencies were used to analyze the data in accordance with the research questions.
The findings of the research indicate that the standard lecture mode of instruction needs to be modified and improved if physics is to be taught and learned. Additionally, the traditional lecture method, lecture-demonstration technique, and cooperative group teaching technique are the teaching methods applicable in the teaching and learning of physics in secondary school. The problem militating against teaching and learning Physics in seco is the negative attitude of students at the secondary school level toward learning Physics, which affects their ability to learn the subject.
Chapter Two Literature Review
The Concept of Effective Teaching
Teachers are being asked to teach with multiple resources in today’s science education reform efforts, often in different ways than they have been trained or learned to teach themselves. It is important to note that Physics teaching should be outcome-oriented and students focused, which can only be done if the students are motivated and the teachers are well disposed for using the correct methods and tools to teach the students (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2018).
In Physics education, it is hoped that teachers should have a strong degree in knowledge as well as understanding in the content prior to bringing it into learners. This is seen to boost successful instruction in high institutions of learning. Tutors must grow students’ attention during learning as well as their feeling towards the subject through their teaching process. It is expected that teachers as experts with strong exposure and experience in Physics can encourage student adjustment, align curriculum offerings with mental development rates, understand the basic cognitive of students and inspire students to learn the subject (Avwiri, 2016).
Availability of Instructional Resources on Effective Teaching
The provision of teaching tools increases schools’ effectiveness as these are fundamental aspects that can offer good student academic success. The insufficiency of human and material capital at learning institutions remains to be significant aspect accountable in student education outcomes. This means that schools with inadequate facilities such as libraries, labs, classrooms, instructional materials are unable to produce successful results (Atieno, 2014).
Considering the views of numerous authors such as Abubakar (2016) as well as Udonsa and Udonsa (2015) retained in their research that Adamawa State’s high schools were largely unequipped to provide training; the students do not have sufficient desks as well as being congested. In Nigeria, Takwate (2018) conducted a research to investigate allocation, availability and maintenance of school facilities in conjunction with the achievement in academia. The results showed a significant association between allocative efficiency, affordability, maintenance quality and academic success of students in that region. The report suggested that government ought to properly provide all of the state’s senior Secondary schools with effective facilities preparation and allocation processes, school principals would periodically perform detailed evaluations of amenities in their institutions to locate areas that require attention.
Lemmer (2000) causes which affect low high school student’s success in all subjects are numerous. The key problems of low success in any subject includes shortage of equipment and material services, high turnover of teachers and administrators, workload of students, lack of trained instructors, ineffective instructional techniques, insufficient communication pupils abilities and also instructors in the language of education.
Students studying in science-based topics such as Physics are closely linked to hypothetical and hands-on-experience, although others are disconnected during learning or scientific applications (Felder et al. 2013).
Padmanabhan (2018) avers that sufficiency of TLR defines the performance of an school program. Textbook and curriculum resources are vital instruments for efficient teaching, their lack or inadequacy allows teachers treat topics in an abstract manner, presenting them as dull and non-exciting.
Achimugu (2016) carried a study to examine issues impacting the successful delivery of the high school Physics program in the State of Kogi, Nigeria. The findings specify that insufficient resources, low teacher engagement, lack of sufficient time to prepare the program, insufficient workshop and voluminous complexity of the Physics curriculum were among the problems found adversely affecting the successful execution of the Physics curriculum.
Read and Kable (2017) discourse that applied knowledge often contributes an important part of Physics research, the curriculum consists of several subjects that can be experimentally tested with the intention of providing a stimulating and exciting atmosphere to encourage students to learn about Physics, which is generally believed to be intangible, quantitative and uninteresting.
The supply of laboratory facilities supplies and materials, laboratory staff, working practices in laboratory and protection steps, extensive required textbooks and specific times assigned to the subjects’ teaching (Adefunke 2018).
Nyanda (2011) observes that it is clear that the absence of well fitted research lab for tutors and learners makes it impossible to teach and study science subjects. In addition, the study showed that most science students believed that they cannot master the idea, understanding and essence of science without practical research.
The research by Uhumuavbi and Okodugha (2014) suggest that using the lab as an instructional tool enables the learners advance persuasive competences. Moreover, it contributes to improved knowledge processing and even to the creation of positive attitudes towards school subjects. It is argued that the students are active participants in the laboratory. This technique familiarizes the learners with brain functions including examining, reasoning, catPlateauizing, measuring, as well as interpreting data.
Ndihokubwayo (2017) notes that tutors are confronted with barriers such as material scarcity, time constraints, and absence in improvisational proficiencies in daily teachings of sciences. They further reported that approximately 95 percent of teachers who work in laboratory schools and just 5 percent of their counterparts in non-classroom schools demonstrate adequate knowledge of the research laboratory practices. Nevertheless, in all of the studied classes, students had common responses as per value of experiment and improvisation in the laboratory.
Cossa and Uamusse (2015) opine that instructional resources as well as laboratory facilities and are inadequate because of a shortage of funds. They observe that in Rwanda, for example, lab equipment is inadequate which was up to 17% of institutions with these labs. According to Sandifer and Haines (2009), practical work is however seen to be the best approach to teach and understand science successfully. This implies that in the short supply of laboratory equipment, effective teaching will be vulnerable.
Laboratory practice is widely understood to be critical component in understanding scientific concepts. Therefore, if there is no laboratory practicals at individual or group level, it means that all that has been learned will be passive knowledge (Jonassen, 2015). Physics lessons is usually performed in labs. This suggests that laboratory is extremely valuable information supply during scientific education, as well as a significant indicator of good attainment in academia (Dahar, 2014).
Muleta and Seid (2016) conducted A research to determine problems impacting the introduction of realistic technical programs in chosen high and introductory schools within Afar Region. Results indicated that up to 68 percent replied that tutors never participate in lab work. This shows that lack of attempts by science teachers to use local content for basic tasks, lack of a separate and well-equipped laboratory for each subject, and less commitment by local authorities and administration of the school could affect student choice for scientific education.
Lunetta, Hofstein and Clough (2017) avers that studying science is improved, and the degree of comprehension is increased as students participate in practical studies in science laboratory. Laboratory has been accorded a significant function in teaching. In this respect, educationalists have proposed that the use of laboratory practices will offer rich benefits in studying science.
Njoka (2015) the analysis in a research showed that some schools lacked labs for Physics definitely. In other instances with labs and reasonably fitted, it nevertheless found that they lacked essential specifications such as a fumigation chamber, gas taps, first aid kit, and water. Further, it was established that the main activities in the laboratories were teacher demonstrations though when group practicals were used, the number of students per group were unusually big. It is recommended that all schools should have adequately equipped laboratories.
It is believed that sound knowledge of a Physics teacher during application of Information Communication Technology in instruction in Physics will engender entrepreneurial skills which in turn will provoke industrial revolution of the country. Eze (2016) maintains that education in whatever form it takes is not complete without effective use of ICT and that the significance of ICT in education includes: exposure to a range of digital tools, content immediacy, study everywhere, social digital, interactive instructional approach, accurate and up-to – date knowledge, links to electronic libraries, distance learning, individualization in instruction, reduce time on many routine task, teaching science subjects made interesting, etc.
Achimugu (2016) examined the Physics teachers’ view of problems impacting the successful use of ICT in Physics instruction Kogi state. The results showed that Physics teachers had the perceptions that problems that includes absence of motivation and non-training of tutors, absence of technical support staff, as well as lack of funds among others affect their effective use of ICT in Physics education.
Agommuoh (2015) further asserted that the utilization of ICT in instruction science will create studying extra real, relevant and experimental as large amount of data and materials on any topic can be brought to the classroom from all over the world thereby, greatly facilitating the gaining in information and providing students with unique chances of improving their learning.
In South Africa, implementation of Physics curriculum is influenced by inadequacy of practical lessons, shortage of both laboratory facilities and relevant textbooks. Others are: teacher unprofessionalism while on the job, poor in-service attendance by tutors, workshops, lack in laboratory attendants or presence of unqualified ones in schools, and absence of laboratory safety equipment for first aid interventions in case of accidents (Ijidike & Oyelana, 2015).
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- Arisi, E. (2018) Causes of Poor Performance of Students in Secondary schools in Plateau State. Unpublished (B.Sc. Edu) Project, Department of Arts and Social Sciences Education, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki.
- Damole, B. T. (2015) Emerging Issues on the Universal Basic Education Curriculum in Nigeria: Implicationsfor the Science and Technology Component: Pakistan Journal of Social Science, Vol. 8 Issue 1.