Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Proximate and Consumer Acceptability of Biscuit Produced From Wheat Flour (Triticum Aestivum L) and Lima Bean (Phaseolus Lunatus) Blends

Proximate and Consumer Acceptability of Biscuit Produced From Wheat Flour (Triticum Aestivum L) and Lima Bean (Phaseolus Lunatus) Blends

Proximate and Consumer Acceptability of Biscuit Produced From Wheat Flour (Triticum Aestivum L) and Lima Bean (Phaseolus Lunatus) Blends

Chapter One

The Objective of the Study

Thus the aim of this study was to determine the proximate and consumer acceptability of biscuits produce from lima bean and wheat flour blends.



 Origin Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus)

Lima bean is an important food though of limited local interest in Nigeria. It has a high yield and nutrient potential. Lima beans are one of the most widely cultivated pulse crops both in temperate and subtropical regions. It is a perennial or annual herb. It shows considerable variation in the form of vines, pods and seeds. As a food legume, it is utilized both as a dry pulse and green vegetable in many parts of the world (Kee et al., 1998). Lima bean originated in Peru and has been cultivated there for more than 7,000 years ago. Lima bean got its name from the place where it was first discovered, (“Lima”) the capital of the South American country of Peru by early European explorers (Kee et al., 1998). The Portuguese explorers introduced lima beans into Africa. This was the beans that can withstand humid tropical weather better than most beans. Lima beans have become an important crop in areas of Africa and Asia.

Ensminger and Ensminger (2006) reported that Lima beans were introduced into the United States in the 19th century, the majority of domestic commercial production centered in California. Today, lima bean is the predominant bean throughout much of the American tropics. These beans were commonly intercropped by Native Americans with corn; this led to the origin of “Succotash” a side dish that combines lima beans and corn. There are many varieties of lima bean, each with feature colour characteristics such as black, dark red, muttle black, white, brown, cream, muttle brown and dark brown. The pod of lima bean is flat, oblong and slightly curved, averaging about three inches in length. Within the pod sides, are four to six flat kidney-shaped seeds that are generally referred to as lima beans (Kee et al., 1998).

In Nigeria, lima bean is one of the legumes cultivated in the eastern part of the country. However, the hard to cook phenomenon experienced with lima bean, especially after long storage period and the toxic component cyanogenic glycosides) are the major constraints to the cultivation and utilization of this legume. The cooking water must be discarded and replaced at intervals during cooking to reduce its toxic component. Another main deterrent to the greater use of this legume is the general ignorance of their food and nutrient potential, range of adaptation and of the practical aspects of their cultivation and use (Kee et al., 1998). A lot of varieties are cultivated in different areas of the south eastern part of Nigeria. The most commonly cultivars are the black and the dark red varieties.

 Taxonomy of Lima bean

Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) belongs to the family Leguminosae. It originated over a wide area in the Americas from where it was (domesticated. Its complex taxonomy   has given rise to many controversies due to its occurrence in many forms. On the basis of morphology of pod and seed, authors classify lima bean into type and named P. lunatus. The genepool of P. lunatus comprises the wild populations and the landraces of lima bean, which can be grouped into two main races: the Andean and the Mesoamerican.  Each race is characterized by distinctive morphological characters (Maquet, 1995; Debouck et al., 2007), ecological adaptation, seed storage proteins (Gutierrez Salgado et al., 1995; Maquet, 1995; Lioi et al., 1999; Lioi, 2004; Debouck et al., 2009;), allozymes (Maquet et al., 1997; Lioi et al., 1998) and molecular markers (Nienhuis et al., 1995; Fofana et al., 1997; Lioi et al., 1998; Caicedo et al., 1999). Escaped forms and weedy forms (natural hybrids between the wild form and a landrace) are observed throughout Latin America. Currently, no natural interspecific hybrids involving P. lunatus have been reported.

The secondary genepool of the lima bean probably consists of the South American species (P. augusti, P. bolivianus, and P. pachyrrhizoides). These species differ very little (Caicedo et al., 1999; Delgado et al., 1999) and may in fact constitute a single species with geographic variants. The tertiary genepool of P. lunatus includes the following species from the U.S.A. and/or Mexico with varying levels of relationship and compatibility: P. jaliscanus Piper, P. juquilensis Delgado, P. maculatus Scheele, P. marechalii Delgado, P. polystachyus Britt, Stern and Pogg, P. ritensis Jones, P. salicifolius Piper, P. sonorensis Standley, and P. xolocotzii Delgado (Debouck, 1999; Delgado et al., 1999; Delgado, 2000). Two variants of P. polystachyus are usually recognized: P. sinuatus Nutt and P. smilacifolius Pollard.

Proximate and Consumer Acceptability of Biscuit Produced From Wheat Flour (Triticum Aestivum L) and Lima Bean (Phaseolus Lunatus) Blends




 Source of Materials

Wheat and Lima bean were bought from a local market in Owo, Ondo State Nigeria, and other ingredients used for this study were purchased at Ikoko market Owo. This research work was carried out in Department of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Preparation of Flours

Preparation of Lima bean Flour

The lima bean flour was prepared according to the method described by Ihekoronye and Ngoddy (2005) as shown in Figure 1. During preparation, two kilograms of lima bean seeds which were free from dirts and other foreign particles such as stones, sticks and leaves were weighed, cleaned and soaked in tap water for 8 hours. Thereafter, the seeds were drained, dehulled manually, boiled (100oC, 30min) and dried in cabinet dryer (65oC, 6hr). During drying, the dehulled seeds were stirred at intervals of 30 minutes to ensure uniform drying. The dried seeds were milled (attrition mill) and sieved to obtain cooked lima bean flour. The lima bean flour obtained was finally packaged in an air tight container which was later subjected for further analysis.




Table 4.1: Proximate Analysis of Biscuit Produced from the Blend of Wheat and Lima bean flour





Based on the research, the blends of wheat flour and lima bean flour of highly nutritious and acceptable by the consumer. Biscuits of acceptable sensory and chemical quality have been produced from wheat-lima bean composite flour thereby suggesting an improvement for the nutritional content of biscuits which is a widely consumed snack. The research was found to explore the use of lima bean. The closeness of values obtained for all biscuits samples to the control sample indicate a high level of acceptance of the lima bean to wheat biscuits. Hence, suggesting a nutritious value to diets.


Biscuit is a convectional snack produced from wheat flour with other ingredients: sugar, baking powder, margarine e.t.c. just like any other cereal based foods, it is high in carbohydrates but low protein therefore, improving the protein content of such of such highly consumed snack cannot be over emphasized. The incorporation of protein based food such as lima bean will increase the protein content of biscuits and also improve the nutritional value of such products.


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