Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Evaluation of Proximate and Sensory Qualities of Iru and Ogiri From Soybean Seed

Evaluation of Proximate and Sensory Qualities of Iru and Ogiri From Soybean Seed

Evaluation of Proximate and Sensory Qualities of Iru and Ogiri From Soybean Seed

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

The objective of this project study is to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of “Iru” and “Ogiri” from soybean seeds.



Fermented Food Condiments (Iru, Ogiri and Daddawa or Dawadawa)

            Fermented foods constitute a significant component of African diets. There are many fermented foods known in Africa. These foods are classified into five major categories based on the substrate from which they are derived (Olasupo, 2006) and they include fermented food condiments among others. Condiment is defined as a spice, sauce or other food preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor or enhance its taste (example salt). Fermented food flavoring condiments are products usually derived from the fermentative activities of microorganisms on vegetable proteins of legumes or oil seeds origin (Isu and Ofuya, 2000; Olasupo et al., 2010). They include iru from Africa locust bean, ugba from African oil bean seed and ogiri from melon seeds among others. These fermented food condiments are known to be good sources of proteins and vitamins (Olasupo, 2006; Okechukwu et al., 2012).

The use of fermented vegetable proteins as seasonings is wide spread in Africa, especially among the rural dwellers. In West Africa, some of the common fermented vegetable condiments include iru or dawadawa from locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) (plate 1), ogiri from melon seeds (Citrullus vulgaris) (plate 2), daddawa from soybean (Glycine max), soumbala from soybean (Glycine max) (plate 3), ugba from African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla) (plate 4) and owoh from cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum). Table 2.1 presents a comprehensive list of fermented food condiments of African origin.




Source of Materials

Soybean was purchased from the main market of Owo. It was processed in the Processing Laboratory; the proximate analysis was carried out the Chemistry Laboratory while the microbial quality was examined in the Microbiological Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.

Methods of Preparation

Preparation of Ogiri from Soybean

The seeds were sorted to remove grit, dirt and winnowed. The sorted seeds were washed and boiled for one hour in 10 times its volume of water. Then the water was drained and replaced with another after which the seeds were boiled again for about six hours until the seeds were soft. The soybean was transferred into leaves and wrapped with jute bag respectively for five days. The sample was milled (using locally made attrition machine) to paste and kept at – 4 oC for further analyses.




Table 4.1: Proximate composition of Iru and Ogiri from soybean seeds




Iru and Ogiri are local condiment that increase the flavour and aroma of our local dishes, it also increase the nutrient of the local dishes due to their nutrient composition, the results on proximate composition revealed that soy-ogiri is more nutritious than soy-iru in terms of its protein, fibre and ash content, while soy-iru has more fat and carbohydrate content than soy-ogiri. The low moisture content in soy-ogiri revealed that it will last more longer compare to soy-iru and will not be easily subjected to microbial attacks. The sensory results revealed that soy-iru is more palatable compared to soy-ogiri, the scores observed shows that soy-iru is preferred in all parameters by the judges than soy-ogiri.


            Based on the finding in this study, it is therefore recommended that the inclusion of the local condiment (soy-iru and soy-ogiri) in our diet should be encouraged because of their nutritional qualities. Also ways should be provided in order to increase the organoleptic properties of the soy-ogiri for further recognition and consumption.


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