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Seminar Paper on Effect of Domestic Violence on Academic Performance of Students

Seminar Paper on Effect of Domestic Violence on Academic Performance of Students

Seminar Paper on Effect of Domestic Violence on Academic Performance of Students


Objectives of the Study

This study aimed to achieve three specific objectives:

  1. To examine the correlation between exposure to domestic violence and academic achievement among students.
  2. To explore the influence of domestic violence on students’ attendance and engagement in educational activities.
  3. To investigate the emotional and psychological consequences of domestic violence and their subsequent impact on a student’s academic performance.



Conceptual Review

Domestic Violence

In the realm of domestic violence, it is imperative to establish a clear understanding of its definition and the various forms it can take, including its prevalence within the Nigerian context.

Domestic violence, as defined by Ajila and Olutola (2021), encompasses a broad spectrum of abusive behaviours inflicted upon individuals within intimate relationships or family settings. It is characterized by a pattern of power and control, where one person exerts dominance over another through physical, psychological, emotional, or sexual means. This multifaceted definition underscores the complexity of domestic violence, recognizing that it goes beyond physical harm to encompass various forms of abuse that can leave deep and lasting scars.

Within the context of domestic violence, several types and forms can be identified, as highlighted by Felson and Lane (2019). Physical violence involves the use of force, such as hitting, slapping, or restraining, to cause bodily harm or injury. Psychological and emotional abuse, as discussed by Evans et al. (2018), includes tactics like verbal insults, threats, and manipulation, aimed at undermining the victim’s self-esteem and emotional well-being. Sexual violence, as explored by Mwangi et al. (2015), involves non-consensual sexual acts or coercion within intimate relationships.

The prevalence of domestic violence in Nigeria is a deeply concerning issue, as documented by various studies. According to Waiselfisz (2015), domestic violence against women in Brazil (a regional neighbour) is alarmingly high, and similar patterns are observed in Nigeria. While specific statistics may vary, the problem remains pervasive, impacting not only women but also children and adolescents who are exposed to these forms of abuse within their households. Understanding the prevalence of domestic violence in Nigeria is crucial for comprehending its potential effects on student’s academic performance, which will be further explored in this study.

Academic Performance

In exploring the impact of domestic violence on students’ academic performance in Nigeria, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various dimensions of academic performance.

Academic performance, defined as the measure of a student’s achievement in an educational setting (Felson & Lane, 2019), encompasses multiple facets that extend beyond traditional grading systems. Among these dimensions, grades, test scores, and attendance are pivotal indicators (Ajila & Olutola, 2021). Grades reflect a student’s mastery of subject matter, while test scores provide a quantitative assessment of knowledge and skills. Additionally, consistent attendance is crucial as it indicates a student’s active engagement in the learning process.

Factors influencing academic performance are multifaceted (Harold, Aitken, & Shelton, 2017). Socioeconomic status, family support, and the quality of the educational environment play pivotal roles. In Nigeria, where educational resources and opportunities can vary significantly, these factors can be particularly influential (Caprara, 2017). Furthermore, family dynamics, including exposure to domestic violence, can significantly impact a student’s ability to concentrate, engage with coursework, and perform well academically (Shaffer & Kipp, 2020).

Understanding these dimensions is essential to evaluate the potential impact of domestic violence on students’ academic performance in Nigeria. By considering factors such as grades, test scores, attendance, and the broader socio-demographic context, this study aims to shed light on the multifaceted relationship between domestic violence and academic achievement among Nigerian students.





This chapter outlines the methodology employed in this research study, which investigates the “Effect of Domestic Violence on the Academic Performance of Students in Nigeria.” The chapter begins by discussing the research design chosen, followed by the rationale for selecting a quantitative survey research design. Additionally, it addresses the target population of the study, the sampling technique employed, the sample size determination, sources and methods of data collection, data analysis procedures utilizing SPSS27, the assessment of validity and reliability through Cronbach’s alpha, and ethical considerations governing this research.

Research Design

A research design serves as the blueprint for conducting a study, outlining the methods and procedures to answer the research questions (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2019).

Justification of the Use of a Quantitative Survey Research Design: In line with the research objectives of investigating the effect of domestic violence on academic performance, a quantitative survey research design was selected. This design allows for the collection of structured data from a large sample, facilitating statistical analysis to identify patterns and relationships (Anderson, Fontinha, & Robson, 2020). Given the scope of this study, involving a broad range of students, a survey approach is suitable for gathering comprehensive information (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). Moreover, it enables the quantification of variables related to domestic violence and academic performance, supporting the achievement of research objectives.

Population of the Study

The population of interest for this study comprises students in Nigerian educational institutions who have experienced or are exposed to domestic violence. It is justified to select a target population of 120 respondents based on practicality and resource constraints (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2017). Conducting an extensive survey across various institutions and regions within Nigeria would be logistically challenging and resource-intensive. Therefore, a manageable yet representative sample size was chosen to ensure the feasibility of data collection and analysis.

Sampling Technique and Sample Size Definition: A sampling technique is a method used to select a subset (sample) from a population (Beiske, 2017).

A convenient sampling technique was adopted for this study due to constraints in terms of time, accessibility, and resources (Robson, 2002). Given the sensitive nature of the topic, reaching a diverse range of students across Nigeria necessitates a practical approach. Convenient sampling allows for a cost-effective and efficient means of data collection, particularly when accessing specific groups, such as students who have experienced domestic violence (Eisenhardt, 2015). While this method may introduce some bias, it is a reasonable compromise for achieving the research objectives within the available resources.

The sample represents a subset of the target population selected for data collection (Charmaz, 2016). A sample size of 60 respondents was chosen, considering practical constraints and resource availability. This size is sufficient for conducting meaningful statistical analyses while remaining manageable for data collection and processing within the research timeline (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2019). A well-structured survey and statistical analyses will ensure the sample adequately reflects the population’s diversity, mitigating potential biases.



Table 4.1 presents the distribution of questionnaires in the study, reflecting the response rate and the status of questionnaire completion. Out of the total 60 questionnaires distributed, 54 were returned and completed, accounting for 90% of the total sample. Meanwhile, 6 questionnaires were not returned or remained incomplete, making up the remaining 10%. This high response rate of 90% indicates a significant level of engagement and cooperation from the participants.

The high completion rate can be interpreted as a positive indicator of the respondents’ interest and willingness to contribute to the study. This suggests that the research topic, which focuses on the impact of domestic violence on the academic performance of students in Nigeria, resonates with the participants, and they consider it an important issue. However, it is essential to acknowledge the 10% non-completion rate, which could be due to various factors such as time constraints, discomfort with the topic, or logistical challenges. Researchers should keep these factors in mind when analyzing the collected data and interpreting the findings to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the study’s outcomes.



Summary of Findings

The findings presented in Tables 4.8 to 4.16 collectively offer a comprehensive snapshot of respondents’ beliefs and perceptions regarding the intersection of domestic violence and students’ academic experiences in Nigeria, as well as their awareness of available support systems. Several noteworthy patterns and insights emerge from this data.

Firstly, it is evident that a significant portion of respondents acknowledge the detrimental impact of domestic violence on a student’s academic performance. In Table 4.8, a clear majority, accounting for 58.3%, agrees with this assertion, emphasizing a prevailing belief in the link between domestic violence within the home environment and academic underachievement. This suggests that respondents recognize the potential academic consequences of exposure to domestic violence among students.

In summary, the findings from these tables reveal a complex landscape of beliefs and perceptions surrounding domestic violence and its impact on students’ academic experiences in Nigeria. While there is a prevalent belief in the negative consequences of domestic violence, uncertainty and varied perspectives also exist. Moreover, respondents generally have confidence in the availability and effectiveness of support systems, which highlights the potential for intervention and assistance in addressing the challenges faced by students exposed to domestic violence.


In conclusion, this study sheds light on the intricate dynamics of domestic violence and its influence on the academic performance of students in Nigeria. The findings underscore the prevalent belief that domestic violence can adversely affect students’ educational outcomes, with many respondents acknowledging the potential distractions and underachievement it may cause. However, a significant level of uncertainty also exists, revealing the need for further awareness and education on this critical issue. Encouragingly, the study highlights a widespread belief in the availability and effectiveness of support systems, emphasizing the importance of continued efforts to assist students facing domestic violence. This research contributes to the ongoing dialogue on safeguarding the educational well-being of students in challenging domestic environments.


Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are proposed:

  1. Increased Awareness and Education: There is a need for comprehensive awareness campaigns and educational programs in schools and communities across Nigeria to inform students, parents, and teachers about the detrimental effects of domestic violence on academic performance. These initiatives should emphasize the importance of early intervention and support.
  2. Enhanced Counseling Services: Schools in Nigeria should bolster their counselling services to provide a safe and confidential space for students affected by domestic violence. Training should be provided to school counsellors to equip them with the skills necessary to address the unique challenges faced by these students.
  3. Collaboration with NGOs: Collaboration between educational institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) specializing in domestic violence support should be encouraged. This partnership can facilitate the delivery of targeted assistance to affected students and their families.
  4. Government Policy and Implementation: The Nigerian government should develop and implement policies that prioritize the protection and well-being of students exposed to domestic violence. This includes allocating resources to ensure the availability of counselling services and support systems within schools.


  • Ajila, C., & Olutola, A. (2021). Impact of parents’ socio-economic status on university students’ academic performance. Ife Journal of Educational Studies, 7(1), 31-39.
  • Alves, E. S. (2020). Violência doméstica contra a mulher: seu impacto no desempenho escolar da criança [Domestic violence against women: its impact on children’s school performance]. (Master’s thesis, São Paulo State University). Link to thesis
  • Alves, E. S., & Prado, P. (2020). Violência e abuso sexual na família [Violence and sexual abuse in the Family]. Psicologia em Estudo, 7, 3-11. doi:10.1590/S1413-73722002000200002
  • Belsky, J. (2020). Desenvolvimento humano: experienciando o ciclo da vida [Human development: experiencing the life cycle]. (D. Bueno, Trans.). Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil: Artmed.
  • Bezuidenhout, F. J. (2018). Child Sexual Abuse. A reader on selected social issues. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
  • Brancalhone, P. G., Fogo, J. C., & Williams, L. C. A. (2018). Crianças expostas à violência conjugal: avaliação do desempenho acadêmico [Children exposed to domestic violence: assessment of academic performance]. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 20, 113-117. doi:10.1590/S0102-37722004000200003
  • Caprara, B. M. (2017). Classes sociais e desempenho educacional no Brasil [Social classes and educational performance in Brazil] (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul). Link to dissertation
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