Political Science Education Project Topics

The Causes and Effects of Political Violence in the Northern Part of Nigeria.

The Causes and Effects of Political Violence in the Northern Part of Nigeria.

The Causes and Effects of Political Violence in the Northern Part of Nigeria.


Objective of the Study

  1. To examine the causes of political violence in Gombe metropolis.
  2. To explain the socio-economic effects of political violence on the victims in Gombe metropolis.
  3. To identify the victims of political violence of Gombe metropolis.
  4. To proper solution to political violence in Gombe metropolis.




The purpose of this chapter is to examine various literature publications and research findings related to the study which the researcher will have an increased knowledge of the topic; the causes and effects of political violence in the Northern part of Nigeria and its victims.

Conceptual Review

According to Fischer (2002), political violence (conflict) is any random or organized act that seeks to determine, delay, or otherwise influence an electoral process through threat, verbal intimidation, hate speech, disinformation, physical assault, forced “protection”, blackmail, destruction of property, or assassination (Fischer, 2002). Political violence generally involves political parties, their supporters, journalists, agents of the government, election administrators and the general population, and includes threats, assaults, murder, destruction of property, and physical or psychological harm (International Foundation for Election Systems, 2011; Fischer, 2002). Nweke (2005), define political violence as any form of physical force applied to the end of disorganizing the political process, ranging from the destruction of electoral materials to the intimidating of the electorates to vote against their wish (Nweke 2005). He stressed further that it includes physical force aimed at influencing electoral officials to work in favour of particular groups or parties or persons as against an established procedure, also it is a harmful act targeted at causing disharmony during elections (Nweke, 2005). Political violence is a faceted process not open to a singular explanation but, unfortunately tending to reproduce itself in a series of socially disruptive behaviors (Olagbegi, 2004). Basically, political violence can be said to be any behaviour involving or tending to involve the use of physical force to cause damage to property of maim or kill an individual(s) in order to ensure of prevent political gains (Olagbegi, 2004). According to IIufoye (2005), electoral violence is a limited aspect of political violence that is associated with the process of elections (IIufoye, 2005). He reasons that forms of political violence occur before, during or after elections (IIufoye, 2005).





Alfa (2011), sees research as process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issues. It consists of three steps which are posing a question, collection of data to answer the question and present answer to the question. This chapter described the processes that will be employing in carrying out the research work. It contains Location of the study Population of the study, Types and Sources of data, Sample Size and Sampling techniques, Method of data collection method, and Method of data analysis.

Location of the Study

Gombe is the capital city of Gombe state. It’s located in the north eastern zone, right within the expansive savannah in the heart of Gombe state, allows the city (Gombe metropolis) to share common borders with some Local Governments;

Akko, Yemaltu-Deba, Kwami, and Dukku Local Gov‟t Areas. The city has an area of 52 km² and a population of around 268,000 people as of 2006 census. Gombe metropolis is a multi-ethnic society that consists of the dominant Fulani tribe. Other ethnicities include the Hausa, Tera, Waja, Bolewa, and Kanuri, with their different cultures as well as lingual affiliations. The second largest ethnic group is Hausa. The state capital; Gombe, is a reflection of the heterogeneity of the state.

The location of the study was selected because of its proximity to the researcher, also, the presence of respondents who will provide answers to the research question and most importantly its history of political crisis in the metropolitan city.

Population of the Study

For a researcher to collect the needed data or information, the researcher must specify entire population target. Therefore, the specific target population in this research were the residents Jekada-fari, Bolari, Kagarawal, Bogo and Tudun-wada which constitutes the five major wards in Gombe metropolis which have been carefully chosen as the focus of this research in order to reflect the area where the activities of political violence were more pronounced in Gombe metropolis.




This chapter deals with the presentations and interpretation of data collected from the field through administered questionnaires and conduction of in-depth


Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This research is based on one hundred (100) questionnaire distributed out of which only ninety-six (96) were duly filled or returned back. All the findings were discussed based on ninety-six questionnaires successfully collected from the respondents. Data would be presented in table of frequency (F) and percentages (%) followed by a brief analysis for easy understanding.




This chapter is strictly on the summary of the findings from which the researcher will derives his conclusion and recommendation or possible solutions to the topic in question.


The research work titled; The causes and effects of political violence in the Northern part of Nigeria” was designed to investigate the factors responsible for political violence, its consequences, and its victim in Gombe metropolis.

In this work, both primary and secondary source of data collection were used, also both quantitative and qualitative method of data collection through the use of structured questionnaire and the use of In-depth interview (IDI), and simple random sample was adopted for the study. It’s noticed in this research that peergroup pressure and Religious bigotry and ethnicity is the major cause of political violence in Gombe metropolis.

Death, injury and insecurity are the major effects of political violence in Gombe state capital as of this research shows; it’s noticed in this study that there is increment in crime rate which led to the deaths and injury of the citizens in Gombe metropolis and put them in state of fear, that is, they (members of the city) felt unsecured.

Also, it is discovered in this study youth as the main victims of this political unrest, because; they are the most used by the politicians, most injured and most prosecuted before, during, and after election (Anti kalare records, 2007).

From the previous chapter (chapter four) we also find out the efforts of government towards controlling of political violence in Gombe metropolis according to this research is below average. As such, we have understood there is need in adjustments and restructuring in governance and electoral processes before the coming elections.


In conclusion, Gombe post-independence history is replete with accounts of incidents of electoral violence. In the contemporary world, elections have become   the   most   accepted means of changing the government. Although history has shown that, it is usually difficult to hold elections that are completely free and fair in Gombe and Nigeria at a whole. Consequently, it’s argued that elections, which in other climes are processes that bring about peaceful change of government, have not been conducted in Nigeria according to international best practices governing their conduct.

Finally, the researcher made far reaching recommendation which it is hope that if those suggestions are adhered to would set the stage for the conduct of violence free elections which would engender political stability and place Gombe and Nigeria at large in the echelon of powerful democracies in the world.


In order to salvage the nation from collapsing into precipice and engender political stability, the researcher recommend the following:

  • Mass reorientation/education of the citizens by the National Orientation Agency, Political Parties, Civil Society Organizations and the Mass Media on the dangers of electoral violence and possible punishments for offenders, through organizing of workshops in communities and organizing of discussion session via mass media channels.
  • Institutional strengthening of all agencies related to the elections, especially, the Nigerian Police Force to be discipline, combat ready, equipped and corruption free, through funding of the agencies and strict punishments for insubordination.
  • Full autonomy for the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) without the interference of the state government. This autonomy would engender administrative efficiency and professionalism of the body.
  • Strengthening of the Judiciary to be fully independent, transparent and incorruptible, and exercise punitive measures against corrupt Judicial Officers that that pervade justice at the Electoral Tribunals, Appeal and Supreme Courts.
  • Political leaders carry a heavy responsibility and we urge them to ensure that their supporters reject violence as an instrument of politics. This will go a long way in promoting order and sanity in the electoral process.
  • States governments should embark on massive industrial and agricultural development to engage the unskilled youths productively. As was mentioned, jobless youth were willing tools in the hands of people who sponsored the violence. Therefore, meaningful engagement of the youth especially in the state capital will go a long way in forestalling future outbreak of violence. This can be done through agricultural loans, establishment of some small scale industries, and more vocational training programmes should be introduced. After the training tools and loans should be given to them to enable them establish their own businesses.


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