The Isolation and Identification of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes Grown in Some Selected Area of River Kaduna in Kaduna State
Aims and objectives:
- To isolate and identify nematode
- To determine the distribution or assessment of nematode populations
- Proper suggestion on minimizing infection.
Tomato is a variable annual herb of 0.2-0.7m height and fruit which is grown for its fleshy berry, red or yellow when ripe containing vitamin A and C. It can be grown at sea level but usually does better at high altitude and when the harvest is marketed at high effectively, the farmer will have high income. For example, in Taiwan, fresh tomatoes grown whether during the winter or summer are more profitable than rice (Villareal, 1980). Tomato fruit is used as raw material in some cases it is cooked and made into soups, sauce, juice, ketchup, paste puree or powder, canned and used unripe in chutneys. The main production areas are in the USA, Italy and Mexico. Tomato production provides employment and business opportunities for manufacturing of fertilizers, pesticides, sprays, propping containers and for dealer in seed farm implement.
Tomato cultivation is usually more restricted by diseases than by pest in most location, but in some places pest are problems. Over recent years there has been small land holder tomato cultivation in part of Africa, but as a good and as a joint disease nematode complex which has build up partly owing to the lack of crop rotation.
Importance of Tomato:
- It generates rural employment. Since they required 2 to 3 more labour per hectare than rice. So production of fresh market tomatoes in the countries (Mexico employed thousands of workers in activities) ranging from seedling production in green house to packing tomatoes in packing house.
- Tomatoes can be used as ingredients in the kitchen and in the food manufacturing industries can also be processed whole or as pass sauce, juice in powder (Reuben, 1980).
- Tomatoes stimulate urban employment. Tomato production provides or brings business opportunity for manufacturers of fertilizers, sprayers and for dealers in seed farm implement.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of Samples:
About four (4) farms were visited during the collection of the soil and root samples and the entire farm are located in River Kaduna area. The sites or area that was sampled include; Malali, Ugwan Rimi, Stadium Round About and Kawo. A total of ten (10) plants uprooted at each sites visited randomly by digging to about 10cm deep below the surface. The soil sample collected were put in polythene bags separately and taken to the laboratory for analysis.
The materials used are as follows:
- Hand trowel
- Polythene bags
- Marker pen
- Knife (for cutting roots)
- Two plastic pans
- Shallow tray
- Extraction dish
- Cross bar dish
- Cotton wool filter
- Clamping ring
- Watch glass
- Counting dish
- Dissecting microscope
- Picking needle (with camel or pig hair)
- Conical flask
- Aquarium pump
- Pippette ( with rubber tube)
Table 1 showing various group of nematode identified in relation to location/Area/sites
The result obtained in this study shows that a total of seven hundred and eight (708) nematodes were counted using the counting dish. Malali Area accounted for three hundred and forty two (342) nematodes, Ungwan Rimi Area accounted for forty (40) nematodes, Stadium Roundabout Area accounted for Sixty-six (66) nematodes and Kawo Area accounted for two hundred and sixty-one (261) nematodes. The Genus of nematodes identified includes; Crieonemoides, Helicotylenchus, Meliodogyne larva Pratylenchus, Rotylenchus, Tylenchus and each accounted for these figures; seven (7), Five hundred and forty four (544), sixty-two (62), Nineteen (19), Sixty four (64) respectively. Even one (1) infestation of nematodes would cause destruction to the plants. Therefore, isolation and identification of these nematodes is the first step towards controlling them.
Typical symptoms of nematodes injury can involve both above ground and below ground plant parts. The time in which symptoms of plant injury occur is related to nematodes population Density, crop susceptibility, and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, under heavy nematode infestation, crop seedling or transplant may fail to develop, maintaining a stunted condition, or die, causing poor or patchy stand development. Under less severe infestation levels, symptom expression may be delayed until later in the crop season after a number of nematode reproductive cycles have been completed on the crop.
Taylor and Sasser (1978) and Nwauzor et al, (1982) reported that the most common symptoms of infection is the presence of distinct swelling (galls or knots) on the roots or below ground storage organs. Taylor et al; 91978) noted that efficiency of the root system is reduced because the galled root system did not utilize water and nutrients from as large a volume of soil as an unaffected root system.
Dropkin (1980) added that environmental conditions can also affect the relative danger posed by nematodes populations. Many plants are damaged by plant parasitic nematodes which feds and multiply in or on roots, stems spreading soil borne viruses or facilitate secondary infection by bacteria and algae. Each crop is in jeopardy the moment its seed is sown. “Virtually over crops has its complement of nematode parasites”. Adesiyan et al (2000) also noted that tomato, a major source of protein and income to its growers has not escaped the hazards associated with nematode infestation. Reduction in yield ranging from 280Co – 680Co has been reported. The rhizosphere is a zone of considerable metabolic activity for root associated microbes. This extends also to the soil formula, which may be concentrated in the rhizosphere. For example, Inglam et al’ (1985) found up to 70% of bacterial and fungal-feeding nematodes in the 4-5% of the total soil that was rhizoshpere, namely the amount of soil 1-2mm from the root surface (the rhizoplane). In comparison, Griffiths and Caul (1993) found that nematodes migrated to packets of decomposition grass residues, with considerable amount of labile subtracts therein, in pot experiments. They concluded that nematodes are seeking out these “hot spots” of concentrated organic matter, and that protozoa, also monitored in the experiment do not.
Nematodes are very sensitive to available soil water in the soil matrix. Elliot et al; (1980) noted that the limiting factor for nematode survival often limyes on the availability of soil pore necks, which enable movement between soil pores. In recent studies, Yeates et al; (2002) measured the growth movement, growth, and survival of three genera of bacterial-feeding soil nematodes is in disturbed soil cores maintained on soil pressure plates.
Interestingly, the nematodes showed significant reproduction even when diameters of water filled pores were approximately 1 Um.
This information should prove useful when determining biological interactions under filed conditions, and indicates that soil nematodes may be more active over a wider range of soil moisture tensions then had been thought to be the case previously.
From the resu7lt obtained, it shows that each area/site (s) same led shows the invasion of nematodes which enables assessment of their association with, or their potential to cause, damage. Therefore, identifying the nematodes in one step towards controlling them.
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