Animal Science Project Topics

Transmission of Monkey-Pox Virus on Animal and Humans in Nigeria

Transmission of Monkeypox Virus on Animal and Humans in Nigeria

Transmission of Monkeypox Virus on Animal and Humans in Nigeria

Chapter One

Purpose Of The Study

The apex objective of this study is to examine the transmission of monkey pox virus in Nigeria. Specifically, the study is set to achieve the following goals;

  1. Examine the symptoms of Monkey pox in Nigeria.
  2. Examine ways through which monkey pox is transmitted.
  3. Examine whether the use of smallpox vaccines  reduces the risk of monkeypox.





Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.

Precisely, the chapter will be considered in two sub-headings:

  • Conceptual Framework
  • Chapter Summary



Monkeypox is a viral infection generated by monkey pox Virus. It is identical to smallpox which belongs to the genus Orthopox virus, family Poxviridae, and sub-family Chordopoxvirinae1 .The illness is distinctly developed in the distant areas of Central and West Africa.Initially it was identified in 1958 in animals like macaque monkeys and was first reported in Humans in 1970 in a 9-month Old boy developed illness, which was ultimately approved as human monkey pox by the World Health Organization from Zaire2 .

Monkey pox is a rodent virus which can mostly disseminate among certain rodents in Africa3 . The viruses are oval brick in appearance and have a lipoprotein layer that envelope the viral DNA. The recognition of monkey pox virus is based on biological feature and endonuclease sequence of viral DNA4 .Monkey pox has a clinical presentation equivalent to smallpox like fever, malaise, back pain, Headache, muscle pains but only the dissimilarity is presenting lymphadenopathy5 . Besides monkeys, reservoirs for the virus are developed in Gambian pouched rats, dormice and squirrels.Currently, there is no validate, secure treatment for monkeypox6.

Monkeypox is a zoonotic viral disease, endemic in western and central Africa, which circulates in wild animal hosts and emerges periodically to affect humans, captive or wild nonhuman primates, and other species, particularly rodents. Congo Basin monkeypox viruses are particularly virulent, with human case fatality rates in parts of Africa estimated to be around 10%. West African viruses tend to cause milder disease; however, deaths are seen occasionally in young children, individuals with secondary bacterial sepsis or rare complications such as encephalitis, and people who are immunosuppressed. Monkeypox outbreaks have been reported sporadically in nonhuman primate facilities around the world, especially in the past. Human cases are almost always seen in Africa, but a large outbreak in Nigeria in 2017-2018 resulted in a few imported cases among travelers to Europe and Asia, with one case resulting in person-to-person transmission to a hospital worker. One outbreak occurred in the United States in 2003, associated with virus transmission between exotic pets and from pets in humans. A prompt diagnosis of imported monkeypox can help prevent this disease from becoming established outside Africa in potential animal reservoirs, such as prairie dogs or released exotic pets.

History Of Monkeypox

Monkeypox virus was first reported in 1959 as an outbreak of a pox-like disease in monkeys kept at a research institute in Copenhagen, Denmark [8]. The first human MPXV case in medical history was recognized when, on 1 September 1970, a nine-month-old child was admitted to the Basankusu Hospital in the Democratic republic of Congo (at that time, known as the Republic of the Congo). The boy had a smallpox-like disease from which MPXV-like virus was isolated [8,9,10,11]. Six cases of human MPXV were described in Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone between October 1970 and May 1971. The first index MPXV case in Nigeria was recorded in 1971, and 10 MPXV cases were reported between 1971 and 1978 [12]. Since then, several thousand human cases of monkeypox have been confirmed in 15 different countries, with 11 of them in African countries. Monkeypox was imported to the United Kingdom, the USA, Israel, and Singapore [13].


Monkeypox is an illness in humans was first integrated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in the town of Basankusu, in 19709 . A second sudden appearance of human illness was distinguished in DRC/Zaire in 1996–1997. In 2003, a small explosion of human monkeypox in the United States appeared among holders of pet prairie dogs10. In 2005, a Monkeypox outburst happened in Unity, Sudan and sporadic Cases have been reported. In 2009, an Outreach campaign among refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo into the Republic of Congo recognized and confirmed two cases of Monkeypox. A monkeypox outbreak in the Central African Republic was carried with 26 cases and two Deaths between August and October 2016. Normally, the prediction involves the proportion of exposure to the virus, host immune response, comorbidities, vaccination status, and extremity of complications. Poxvirus infections have no ethnic preference and the prevalence is uniform in males and females. Roughly one third of the infections were evaluated to be Sub-clinical. The increase in instances was imputed to the effect of the civil war which had led to increased hunting for forest animals that carry monkey pox, especially Squirrels. Improvement in lifestyle due to increasing urbanization, and intensified Agricultural activities replacing hunting and trapping, the chances of reducing monkey pox, either from the primary reservoir or intermediate hosts, thenit will become a disappearing disease11.


Monkeypox isoriginated by Monkeypox virus, which belongs to the genus orthopoxvirus, and is also generated by a class of viruses that include chicken pox and small pox belonging to the same genus12.The reservoir for monkeypox virus is unknown, but is thought to be squirrels or rodents in central Africa. In addition to African species, Studies have shown that there are multiple potential hosts for monkeypox virus encompasses primates, rabbits and rodents. Since Monkeypox virus has an animal reservoir, complete elimination of the disease is not feasible.

Species Affected

The monkeypox virus’s full host range is uncertain. Animals known to be susceptible to infection include diverse Old and New World monkeys and apes, and various rodents, shrews and other small mammals. Among nonhuman primates, clinical cases have been described in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and an infant sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) in the wild, as well as captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzees, Asian orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gibbons (Hylobates lar), marmosets (Hapale jacchus), and various monkeys in the genera Cercopithecus, Macaca and Siamiri. Antibodies have been found in other wild or captive nonhuman primates. During an outbreak in the U.S. associated with exotic pets, infected animals included Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.), North American black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp.), dormice (Graphiurus sp.), a groundhog/ woodchuck (Marmota monax), an African hedgehog (Atelerix sp.), a jerboa (Jaculus sp.) and two opossums (Didelphis marsupialis and Monodelphis domestica). Chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) and coatimundis (Nasua nasua) developed antibodies after exposure, but viral DNA or infectious virus was not found. Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) were thought to have been involved in an outbreak among primates at the Rotterdam Zoo in the Netherlands in 1964. Limited early surveillance in sheep, goats and cats in Africa found no evidence of exposure, but antibodies were detected in one pig. A subsequent attempt to infect pigs by rubbing virus into the skin did not result in virus recovery except from the inoculation site. Experimental infections with clinical signs have also been reported in 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), forest giant squirrel (Protexerus strangeri), bobak marmot (Marmota bobak), and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). Adult white rabbits (with the apparent exception of albino rabbits), guinea pigs, white rats (Rattus spp.) and wild type laboratory mice (Mus musculus) are refractory to experimental infection, though newborn rats and rabbits can be infected.






In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.


Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.


According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.

This study was carried out to examine the transmission of monkeypox virus on animal and humans in Nigeria using Bayelsa State as case study. The respondents for this study were obtained from Okolobiri General Hospital of Bayelsa State. Hence, the staff of Okolobiri General Hospital form the population of the study.




This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of sixty five (65) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which fifty (50) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of  50 was validated for the analysis.




This chapter summarizes the findings into the transmission of monkeypox virus on animal and humans in Nigeria using Bayelsa State as case study. Respondents for this study were obtained from the medical staff of Okolobiri General Hospital, Bayelsa State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.

Restatement Of The Problem

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), which is a member of orthopoxvirus genus. The reemergence of MPXV in 2017 (at Bayelsa state) after 39 years of no reported case in Nigeria, and the export of travelers’ monkeypox (MPX) from Nigeria to other parts of the world, in 2018 and 2019, respectively, have raised concern that MPXV may have emerged to occupy the ecological and immunological niche vacated by smallpox virus. This review X-rays the current state of knowledge pertaining the infection biology, epidemiology, evolution and transmission of MPXV in Nigeria, especially with regard to the human, cellular, and viral factors that modulate the virus transmission dynamics, infection, and its maintenance in nature. Hence this study examines the system of monkey pox transmission in Nigeria.

Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the transmission of monkeypox virus on animal and humans in Nigeria using Bayelsa State as case study. The study specifically was aimed at examining the symptoms of Monkey pox, ways through which monkey  pox is transmitted and  whether the use of smallpox vaccines  reduces the risk of monkeypox.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active medical staff of Okolobiri General Hospital, Bayelsa State.


Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Fever, headache, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes, feeling tired, rash that forms blisters and crusts are all symptoms of monkey pox.
  2. Monkey pox can be contaminated or transmitted through handling bush meat, an animal bite, an animal scratch, body fluids, contaminated objects, and close contact with an infected person.
  3. The use of smallpox vaccines reduce the risk of monkeypox as it; immunizes people against monkey pox, protects people from monkey pox, eradicates monkey from the human population, and  is used to prevent the transmission of monkey pox.


Based on the responses obtained, the researcher recommended that;

  • To prevent MPXV from occupying the ecological niche vacated by VARV and possibly evolve to a much deadlier pathogen than it is at present, national and global research efforts should be intensified in order to identify virulence markers of disease, host and viral factors that modulate MPXV evolution, human behaviors that support zoonotic spillover events, surrogates for asymptomatic infection, as well as virus and host determinants of immunity.
  • In Nigeria in particular MPXV epidemiological surveillance in humans and potential host species should be pre-emptive, that is, it should be conducted on a routine basis and not just in response to an outbreak.
  • The relevant authorities in Nigeria should educate the populace some measures which can be adopted to prevent to outbreak and transmission of monkey pox which include; avoiding contact with animals that could harbor the virus (including animals that are sick or that have been found dead in areas where monkeypox occurs), avoiding contact with any materials, such as bedding, that has been in contact with a sick animal, isolation of infected patients from others who could be at risk for infection, practicing good hand hygiene after contact with infected animals or humans. For example, washing your hands with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and using personal protective equipment (PPE) when caring for patients.

 Suggestions For Further Research

This study is delimited the the transmission of monkey pox in Nigeria, further studies should be conducted to indicate the social economic effect of the outbreak of monkey pox in Nigeria,


  • Barrett, J.W.; McFadden, G. Origin and Evolution of Poxviruses. In Origin and Evolution of Viruses; Elsevier Ltd.: Singapore, 2008; pp. 431–446. ISBN 9780123741530. [Google Scholar]
  • Hughes, A.L.; Irausquin, S.; Friedman, R. The evolutionary biology of poxviruses. Infect. Genet. Evol. 2010, 10, 50–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Diven, D.G. An overview of poxviruses. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2001, 44, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Odom, M.R.; Curtis Hendrickson, R.; Lefkowitz, E.J. Poxvirus protein evolution: Family wide assessment of possible horizontal gene transfer events. Virus Res. 2009, 144, 233–249. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Lefkowitz, E.J.; Wang, C.; Upton, C. Poxviruses: Past, present and future. Virus Res. 2006, 117, 105–118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Essbauer, S.; Pfeffer, M.; Meyer, H. Zoonotic poxviruses. Vet. Microbiol. 2010, 140, 229–236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Available online: (accessed on 17 October 2020).
  • Von Magnus, P.; Andersen, E.K.; Petersen, K.B.; Birch-Andersen, A. A Pox-like Disease in Cynomolgus Monkeys. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 2009, 46, 156–176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  • Breman, J.G.; Ruti, K.; Steniowski, M.V. Human monkeypox, 1970–1979. Bull. World Health Organ. 1980, 58, 165–182. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  • Jezek, Z.; Gromyko, A.I.; Szczeniowski, M.V. Human monkeypox. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 1983, 27, 13–28. [Google Scholar]
  • Ladnyj, I.D.; Ziegler, P.; Kima, E. A human infection caused by monkeypox virus in Basankusu Territory, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bull. World Health Organ. 1972, 46, 593–597. [Google Scholar]
  • Foster, S.O.; Brink, E.W.; Hutchins, D.L.; Pifer, J.M.; Lourie, B.; Moser, C.R.; Cummings, E.C.; Kuteyi, O.E.K.; Eke, R.E.A.; Titus, J.B.; et al. Human monkeypox. Bull. World Health Organ. 1972, 46, 569–576. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]


WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!