Architecture Project Topics

Comparison of Locally Excavated Sand With River Sand in Terms of Strength in Sandcrete Blocks (Nsude as Case Study).

Comparison of Locally Excavated Sand With River Sand in Terms of Strength in Sandcrete Blocks (Nsude as Case Study).

Comparison of Locally Excavated Sand With River Sand in Terms of Strength in Sandcrete Blocks (Nsude as Case Study).

Chapter One


  • This project research will help us to understand the different strength of sandcrete blocks produced with locally excavated sand and River sand.
  • This will also help to know the properties of Nsude sand after laboratory test has been carried out.
  • This will help us in determining the moulding methods and properties of sandcrete blocks. These properties are determined by the ratio of block constituents such as cement, water and sand.




After the Second World War, other methods of building houses were abandoned for methods which favour the use of sandcrete blocks. The advantage of using sandcrete blocks is that they have better thermal insulators especially those made from light weight aggregate.

Another reason for preference of sandcrete blocks is availability compared to bricks for instance, the techniques for the production of sandcrete blocks appear simple thus favouring its preference.

Sandcrete blocks are made of dense or light weight aggregate and are formed either hollow or solid. The dense sandcrete has a mixture of cement and aggregates of sand while those of light weight are aggregate of clinker, expanded clay, foamed slag, sintered fly-ash, pumice, expanded vermiculite and aerated concrete as prescribed in BS 6073.

(Hamza, et al, 2009), Sandcrete nine inches blocks must satisfy building specification by laws with respects to the compressive strength. The thickness of the blocks ranges from 50-225mm.

       According toNene (2009), British standard BS 2028,  1364 defines blocks as a walling unit with dimensions greatly than brick specified in BS 3921.

According to (Edward 1985),The blocks can cope with thermal and moisture condition and the problem of algae growth on the face of block work during construction is unlikely to affect the strength of the block. The compressive strength of hollow sandcrete nine inches block increases by adding optimum quantity of water which will also have an impact on the mix a and workability.

They are formed in moulds and compacted either by pressing, tamping or vibrating. After moulding, they are allowed to harden naturally. They are used in both external and internal load bearing, curtain, partition, panel walls and many other construction processes.

According to Obande (1990), for the blocks to achieve its constructional purpose, it has to be made in a configuration or shape so as to support its imposed loads both life and dead loads. To achieve this, the blocks are laid in regular patterns such that it is resting at least partly on two blocks and this arrangements must present a pleasant surface appearance and avoid straight (vertical continuous) joints as much as possible when laying and this phenomenon is called bonding.


Cement refers to accurately any adhesive and the material used in connection with block and it is referred to as hydraulic cement. This is because the setting and hardening of cement depends on the presence of water.

The essential properties of cement is the ability to harden by a chemical action when mixed with water which is known as hydration.

According to B.S 12 1978 and the American standard (A.S.T.M.C 150 – 84) cement primarily made from lime (Cao), silica (SIO2) Allumina (AL203), iron oxide (Fe202) etc, these materials that present are mainly a compound being the silicates and aluminates of calcium.





  • Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) Unicem

Fine aggregate were obtained respectively from Nyama river in Awkuke and Amagu in Nsude in Udi L.G.A, both in Enugu State. Water was gotten from the laboratory reservoir.


This is to compare the use of locally excavated sand and river sand in terms of strength in sandcrete certain laboratory processes such as sieve analysis proctor compaction, mix design, silt test/clay dust test, moulding and compressive strength were carried out.


Enugu state University of science and technology soil and concrete labouratory were used to carry out all the practical.



Table 4.1 shows the sieve analysis result of excavated sand (NSUDE)




During the sample collection, Nsude sand was very sharp in its physical appearance, but after the sieve analysis, it happened that Nyama (river sand) was better than Nsude.


       From the research done, Nsude sand is not good for sandcrete work, but it is good for plastering. Reason because Nsude sand belongs to zone 3 after the sieve analysis. Zone one and zone 2 are for concrete/sandcrete works, while zone 3 and zone 4 are for plastering.


  • Balogun .L .A, Adepegba D., (1982) “Effect of Varying Sand Content in Laterized Concrete” International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete;4(4):235–41.
  • D.E. Ewa , J.O. Ukpata. Civil Engineering Department, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Cross River State. Investigation of the Compressive Strengths of Commercial Sandcrete Blocks in Calabar Nigeria.
  • R.C Okoloekwe. Department of Civil Engineering, Enugu State University of Science and Technology. Concrete Technology.
  • Adeyeye Adewale Olufisayo. 41, Unity Avenue, Agbado Station, Ogun State.Strength properties of Commercially produces sandcrete Blocks in Ado Ekiti, Akure and Ile Ife Nigeria.
  • I Allen. Department of Civil Engineering, Enugu State university of Science and Technology. Water and waste water Engineering Laboratory.
  • Okafor D. M. Department of Civil Engineering, Enugu State University of Science and Technology. Laboratory Practical Guide.
  • Yusuf and Hamza, A.A. Department of Civil Engineering Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. COMPARING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SIX AND NINE INCHES HAND MOULDED SANDCRETE BLOCK.
  • C Ezeokonkwo.Department of Civil Engineering,University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Optimisation of Cavity Size in Hollow Sandcrete Blocks.
  • L. Oekan1* and O. M. Kamiyo2. 1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria.2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria. A study on the engineering properties of sandcrete blocks produced with rice husk ash blended cement.
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