Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Effect of Fermentation on the Phytochemical and Mineral Composition of Flour Blend From Wheat, Sweet Potato, and Soybean Flour

Effect of Fermentation on the Phytochemical and Mineral Composition of Flour Blend From Wheat, Sweet Potato, and Soybean Flour

Effect of Fermentation on the Phytochemical and Mineral Composition of Flour Blend From Wheat, Sweet Potato, and Soybean Flour

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

The main objective of this project research was to examine the effect of fermentation on the phytochemical and mineral composition of flour blends wheat, sweet potato and soy flour.

Specific Objectives includes:

  1. To determine the phytochemical properties and mineral composition of the fermented and unfermented flour blend
  2. To determine the effect of fermentation on the phytochemical and mineral composition of the flour blends



 Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Wheat, a cereal grass of the Gramineae (Poaceae) family and of the genus Triticum and its edible grain, is the world’s largest cereal-grass crop. It has been a food crop for mankind since the beginning of agriculture. The Middle East is probably the area of origin, and it was spread throughout Europe not later than the Stone Era. Historians believed that it has been growing since Paleolithic times and cultivated since 6000 years. Its status as a staple is second only to rice. The reason for its popularity is that, unlike other cereals, wheat contains a high amount of gluten, the protein that provides the elasticity necessary for excellent bread making. Although over 30,000 varieties of wheat exist, the two major types are bread wheat and durum wheat (McFadden and Sears, 2006).

Global production of wheat is approximately 600 million tons; with international trade approximately 100 million tons annually. Wheat is Asia’s second most important staple and has been growing much faster than rice. Wheat provides one-fifth of total developing country food supply, up from 15 % in the early 1970s. In 1992-94, developing countries accounted for 45 % of world wheat production (551 million tons) and 46 % of world wheat area (219 million hac). The wheat plant is an annual food grass. It is mainly grown as a winter annual in milder climates, with seeding in the fall and harvest from June through August depending on the length of the winter. In areas with rigorous winter climates, it is mainly spring seeded. Planting is as early as soil can be worked, and harvest is in late summer and early fall.

Table 1:          Pharmacognosy and Phytopharmacology of Wheat Grass

Taxonomical Details

Kingdom:                                Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom:                           Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision:                         Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division:                                  Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class:                                       Liliopsida – Monocotyledons

Subclass:                                 Commelinidae

Order:                                      Cyperales

Family:                                    Poaceae – Grass family

Genus:                                     Triticum L. – wheat

Species:                                   TriticumAestivum

Sources: McFadden and Sears (2006)




Collection of Materials

            Wheat, sweet potato and soybean were all purchased from the main market (Oja-oba) in Owo, Ondo State. The raw materials (sweet potato and soybean) were all processed into flour in the processing laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.


Preparation of wheat flour

Wheat flour was bought from the commercial seller in a popular market in Owo.




Table 4: Phytochemical composition of fermented and unfermented wheat, sweet potato and soy flour blends





From the result of this study it can be deduced that fermentation has some little to no effect on the phytochemical properties of the flour blends when compared to unfermented samples, the phenol content decreases in sample FSF (fermented) (35.63mg/g) when compared to the ratio of sample USP (unfermented) (79.86mg/g). The flavonoid content of the unfermented were also lower than the fermented samples except for sample USP and FSF which have the flavonoid value, FSF was the only sample lower in saponin when compared to the unfermented samples indicating that SWS and WS2 is lower than fermented FSP and FUS in terms of saponin. The tannin content of fermented samples is lower than the tannin content of unfermented samples, this is due to the fermentation effects on the fermented flour samples.

In terms of mineral composition of both fermented and unfermented samples, it can be seen that unfermented flour blends is richer mineral composition in terms calcium (WS2 and SWS), manganese (WS2 and SWS), zinc (WS2, SWS and USP) when compared to fermented flour blends, while fermented samples is richer in iron (FUS and             FSF) and phosphorus (FUS and FSF). In conclusion, fermentation have little to no effect on the phytochemical and mineral composition of flour blends produced from wheat, sweet potato and soybean flour blend due to the result obtained in this study.


Based on the findings in the study, it is therefore recommended that more research should be carried out on the effect of fermentation on the proximate and functional properties of the flour produced from the blend of wheat, soybean and sweet potato.


  • Abdel Rahman, S.M., Babiker, E.E. and Abduallahi, H.E. (2005). Effect of fermentation on antinutritional factors and HCL extractability of minerals of pearl millet cultivars. J. Food Sci. Tech. 3(4):516-522.
  • Adams, M.L., Lombi, E., Zhao, F.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2002). Evidence of low selenium concentrations in UK bread-making wheat grain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82: 1160–1165.
  • Addo, A.A. and Oguntona, C.R.B. (2003). Nutritional Value of Soyabeans. Paper Presented at Training Workshop of Extension Workers in Soyabean Processing and Utilization, FMAWA/RD/UNAAB Soyabean Popularisation
  • Adeola, A.A. and Ohizua, E.R. (2018). Physical, chemical, and sensory properties of biscuits prepared from flour blends of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweet potato. Food Science and Nutrition, 6 (3), 532-540.
  • Adeyeye, S.A.O. (2018). Quality evaluation and acceptability of cookies produced from rice (Oryza glaberrima) and soybeans (Glycine max) flour blends. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology, 18(1), 1–13.
  • Ahmed, M.B., Hamed, R.A., Ali, M.E., Hassan, A.B. and Babiker, E.E. (2006). Proximate composition, antinutritional factors and protein fraction of guar gum seeds as influenced by processing treatments. Pak. J. Nutr. 5(5):481-484.
  • Altura, S. andAltura, J, (1995). Effect of wheat bran on diabetic subjects. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 3(3): give page numbers
  • Alvarez-Jubete, L., Arendt, E.K. and Gallagher, E. (2010). Nutritive value of pseudocereals and their increasing use as functional gluten-free ingredients. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 21(2), 106– 113.
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!