Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Quality Evaluation of Biscuit From Wheat-tiger Nut Composite Flour

Quality Evaluation of Biscuit From Wheat-tiger Nut Composite Flour

Quality Evaluation of Biscuit From Wheat-tiger Nut Composite Flour

Chapter One

The Objective of the Study

The objectives of this research work are to produce wheat-tiger nut composite flour, to produce biscuits from the composite flour blends, and to determine nutritional qualities of the biscuits produced.



Wheat is the most important stable food crop for more than one third of the world population and contributes more calories and proteins to the world diet than any other cereal crops (Abd-EL-Haleem et al., 1998; Adams et al., 2002; Shewry, 2009). It is nutritious, easy to store and transport and can be processed into various types of food. Wheat is considered a good source of protein, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber (Shewry, 2007; Simmonds, 2009) although the environmental conditions can affect nutritional composition of wheat grains with its essential coating of bran, vitamins and minerals; it is an excellent health-building food. Wheat flour is used to prepare bread, produce biscuits, confectionary products, noodles and vital wheat gluten or seitan. Wheat is also used as animal feed, for ethanol production, brewing of wheat beer, wheat based raw material for cosmetics, wheat protein in meat substitutes and to make wheat straw composites. Wheat germ and wheat bran can be a good source of dietary fiber helping in the prevention and treatment of some digestive disorders (Simmonds, 2009).

Wheat Classification

Common wheat, sp.

Kingdom: Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class: Liliopsida – Monocotyledons

Subclass: Commelinidae

Order: Cyperales

Family: Poaceae – Grass family

Genus: Triticum – wheat

Species: Triticumaestivum – common wheat

Other Species: T. aestivum, T. aethiopicum, T. araraticum, T. boeoticum, T. carthlicum, T. compactum, T. dicoccoides, T. dicoccon, T. durum, T. ispahanicum, T. karamyschevii, T. macha, T. militinae, T. monococcum, T. polonicum, T. spelta, T. sphaerococcum, T. timopheevii, T. turanicum, T. turgidum, T. urartu, T. vavilovii, and T. zhukovskyi.    

Importance of Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis.

Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares, 2014). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.

Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids.





Wheat and Tigernut were bought from a local market in Owo, Ondo State Nigeria, and other ingredients used for this study were purchased at Ikoko market Owo. This research work was carried out in Department of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Preparation of Flours

 Preparation of wheat flour

For the production of wheat flour, 2kg of wheat was measured after which foreign materials such as dirt’s, stone, cobs, damaged and colored seeds were removed manually by hand picking. The sorted wheat was milled using laboratory attrition mill to produce wheat flour (WF) and was stored in an air tight polythene bag until needed further analysis as shown in figure I.




Table 1: Sensory properties of biscuit produced from whole wheat and tigernut flour.





In terms of overall acceptability, sample A has the highest sensory score, but it does not have any significant different with sample B and C. Inclusion of tigernut flour in wheat flour at levels of 10 to 50% resulted in notable increase in fat contents while ash and fibre content decreased. Evaluation of the nutritional properties of dough from the composite flour and sensory properties of biscuit revealed that a 90% wheat flour substitution with tigernut flour yielded biscuit product that was similarly rated with that produced from pure wheat flour.


This product, most especially at 10% tigernut flour level of substitution is recommended for human consumption. Further studies in these areas include selection of improvise varieties of tigernut and protein supplements such as tigernut as well as optimization of processing conditions for the production of tigernut biscuits and microbiological quality acceptability of the blends could be carried out.

Also, Nigerians should be encouraged to cultivate tigernut based diet to meet their daily nutritional requirements.


  • Abaejoh, R., Djomdi, I. and Ndojouenkeu, R. (2006).Characteristics of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) tubers and their performance in the production of a milky drink.Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 30: 145-163.
  • Abd-El-Haleem, S.H.M., Reham, M.A., Mohamed, S.M.S., Abdel-Aal, E.S.M., Sosulski, F.W. and Hucl, P. (1998). Origins, characteristics and potentials of ancient wheats.Cereal Foods World, 43: 708–715.
  • Adams, M.L., Lombi, E., Zhao, F.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2002).Evidence of low selenium concentrations in UK bread-making wheat grain.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82: 1160–1165.
  • Adddy, E.O. and Eteshola, E. (1994). Nutritive value of a mixture of tigernut tubers (Cyperus esculentus L) and baobab seeds (Adansoniadigitata L). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 35:437-440.
  • Adejuyitan, J.A. (2011). Tigernut processing: Its food uses and health benefits. American Journal of Food Technology, 6(3): 197–201.
  • Adejuyitan, J.A., Otunola, E.T, Akande, E.A, Bolarinwa, I.F. and Oladokun, F.M. (2009). Some physicochemical properties of flour obtained from fermentation of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) sourced from a market in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 3:51– 5.
  • Ade-Omowaye, B.I.O., Adegbite, A.M, Adetunji, B.R. and Oladunmoye, O.O (2009),”Evaluation of some chemical and physicochemical properties of meals from pretreated tigernut seeds (Cyperus esculentus)”.Nutrition and Food Science, 39 (2):142 – 150.
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!